Bonds Of Friendship Summary Notes

Bonds Of Friendship Author

Craig Burkholder published this poem first time on social media in 2014. A well-composed poem about a reunion with a childhood friend is what the poem is all about. Social media is catching the imagination of the Gen Next and a lot of young poets are taking to write and publish poetry through social media.

This is what Craig Burkholder has to say about the Poem: ‘This poem was written for a very special childhood friend that I reconnected with after many years. I was experiencing turmoil from a tragic personal situation, and she was suddenly introduced into my life. She is an amazing listener and friend, and I’ll love her always”.

This poem is introduced to the students to inspire them to try their hand in composing poetic lines.

Bonds Of Friendship Summary

The poem ‘Bonds of Friendship’ is by Craig Burkholder, which was published on social media in 2014.

The poet composed the poem to celebrate the reunion with a childhood friend. The poet says ‘The poem was written for a very special friend that I reconnected with after many years. I was experiencing turmoil from a tragic personal situation, and she was suddenly introduced into my life. She is an amazing listener and friend and I’ll love her always.
“From the day that I first knew you,
Your heart was pure and kind;
Your smile was sweet and innocent,
Your wit was well refined.
The sparkle in your eyes was keen,
Your friendship fast and real;
Soft words were your virtue,
And humor your appeal.
We grew as friends together,
We laughed and shared our dreams;
Along the way crush or two,
Went unrevealed, it seems.”
The narrator begins the poem by describing his childhood friend. (There is no mention of her name) The poet admits that from the very day they were first introduced to each other, he knew that her heart was pure and kind. He describes her smile as ‘sweet and innocent. Her sense of wit was pure and intelligent. Her eyes sparkled with enthusiasm and eagerness. The author praises his girlfriend for being in a firm and real friendship with him. The girlfriend had the virtue of speaking softly and lovingly to him. The poet found her humor attractive.

The poet says that they, he and his girlfriend grew up together, laughed and played together, and also shared their dreams and aspiration. Even though they shared their dreams and feelings with each other, the poet feels that they might have concealed their love for each other.
“As years rolled on, our paths were split,
Our roads went separate ways;
We each pursued our interests,
That occupied our days.
We soon forgot our youthful bliss,
Of tender carefree years; .
We didn’t talk or keep in touch,
Throughout life’s pain and tears.
Then my darkest hour came,
And tried me to my core;
To save my heart from ruin,
I closed and locked the door.”
The poet writes about how he and his girlfriend grew apart. As years passed, they started pursuing their own areas of interest and became involved in their career and forgot about each other, and eventually lost contact with each other. Both the poet and his special friend ‘forget our youthful bliss of the tender carefree years”; since they got involved in pursuing their career, they soon forgot their carefree childhood years spent together. They lost contact with each other- “we didn’t talk or keep in touch”, even when they were in ‘pain and tears’,- even in their sorrow and sadness.

Here the poet reveals that ‘Then my darkest hour came/ And tried me to my core”. The poet implies that he was experiencing turmoil from a personal tragic incident in his life which ‘tried me to my core’ which tested his will – power in life and it seems that he was so depressed by the incident that he felt suicidal and to save himself from such thoughts ‘I closed and locked the door ’. He began to lead a reclusive life.
“Then out of every nowhere,
With precisely directed cue;
An old familiar smile,
Came slowly into view.
Although much time was gone,
And the die of fate long cast;
It was as if we hadn’t missed,
A second of the past.
You listened with attentive care,
And reassured my mind;
That loving hearts are still alive,
With purpose and design.”
Here the poet writes that when he had lost hope of reviving his life and shut himself from the world, his dear friend had suddenly reappeared in his life. The poet felt as if the ‘old familiar smile’ had slowly come into his life again. Many years had passed and fate had played its role in their lives but when she reappeared in life, he felt as if he had not missed a ‘Second of the past’ He felt reassured that now everything appeared as it was in the past when they spent their time with each other.

The poet’s friend has listened to his turmoil ‘with attentive care’ and he felt reassured in his life. He felt that ‘loving hearts are still alive’ with ‘purpose and design’ to rebuild his life all over again. Her love and compassion for the poet reassured him to regain the purpose of his life and he began to plan for the future course of his life with his dear friend’s help.
“Deep inside I’ve locked way,
Emotions yet untold;
As time goes on, and bonds grow strong,
They will all unfold.
So thank you, friend, for taking time,
To demonstrate your love;
It’s yet another blessing that,
I’m undeserving of.”
The poet now confesses to the reader that he had ‘locked away’ his true ‘emotions’ for his special friend ‘deep inside’ his heart ’. But he strongly feels that eventually in the future when their ‘bonds’- relationship – will grow strong again, he might be able to reveal his true emotions to her. For the time being he just thanks to his dear friend for taking time off her busy career to come all the way to console him in his hour of turmoil and for demonstrating her love for him.

The poet feels that her love is ‘yet another blessing’ that he doesn’t deserve because he had deserted her and parted ways with her. But she demonstrated her love for him, by coming back into his life when he needed love and care. The poet is optimistic that one day he will surely reveal his true love for her.

Bonds Of Friendship Glossary

Wit          : language that evokes laughter, intelligence
Refined   : pure, perfect
Sparkle   : shine
Virtue     : behavior of high moral
Pursued  : followed
Bliss       : pleasure, joy
Ruin      : destruction
Core      : heart, depth of one’s being
Cue       : indication

Bonds Of Friendship Questions & Answers

Comprehension

Question 1.
How does the narrator describe his friend?
Answer:
The narrator describes his childhood friend (there is no mention of her name) by saying that from the very day they were first introduced to each other, he knew that her heart was pure and kind. He describes her smile as ‘sweet and innocent. Her sense of wit was pure and intelligent. Her eyes sparkled with enthusiasm and eagerness. He praises his girlfriend for being in a firm and real friendship with him. The girlfriend had the virtue of speaking softly and lovingly to him. He also found her humour attractive.

Question 2.
What is the culprit of friendship as mentioned in the fourth stanza?
Answer:
The culprit of friendship is forgetting to keep in touch with each other.

Question 3.
When did the poet recall his friendship? Why?
Answer:
The poet recalled his friendship when he was experiencing turmoil from a tragic personal tragedy. He was so depressed in life that he had suicidal thoughts and to save himself from such thoughts he became a recluse and shut himself from the world.

Question 4.
“I closed and locked the door means
a. introspection
b. he stopped thinking
c. he remained alone
Answer:
b. he stopped thinking

Question 5.
When did he realize the significance of remembering his friendship?
Answer:
He realized the significance of friendship when his childhood friend reconnected with him when he was depressed by a personal tragedy and she had taken care of him during those days and listened to him with patience and reassured him in his life. He felt that ‘loving hearts are still alive’ with ‘purpose and design’ to rebuild his life all over again. Her love and compassion for the poet reassured him to regain the purpose of his life, and the poet realized how much he missed her.

Question 6
………………………. came to his view when he remembered his friendship.
Answer:
An old familiar smile

Question 7.
Trace the stages of the growth of their friendship with the passage of time.
Answer:
The poet and his special friend had met each other when they were still in their childhood. From the very day, they met the poet knew that her heart was pure and kind. He felt that her smile was ‘ sweet and innocent. He was attracted by her sense of wit which was pure and intelligent. The poet was enamored by her eyes which sparkled with enthusiasm and eagerness. She offered a firm and real friendship towards the poet. Moreover, the poet found her humour attractive. All these virtues in his girlfriend drew the poet towards her and their bonds of friendship began grow firm. The poet says that he and his girlfriend grew up together, laughed and played together, and also shared their dreams and aspirations as they grew older. Even though they shared their dreams and feelings with each other, the poet feels that they might have concealed their love life from each other.

As they grew older with the passage of time he and his girlfriend had grown apart, they started pursuing their own areas of interest and became involved in their career, and forgot to keep in touch with each other. Since they got involved in pursuing their own interests they slowly forgot the blissful and carefree days they spent with each other. They lost contact with each other and didn’t try to keep in touch even when they were in pain and tears.

During the course of time, the poet was suddenly struck by a personal tragic event in his life that tried him to the core. This incident tested his will – power in life and it seems that he was so depressed by the incident that he felt suicidal and to save himself from such thoughts he began to lead a reclusive life. At that time he becomes nostalgic and remembers the old familiar reassuring smile of his childhood friend. When he had lost hope of reviving his life afid shut himself from the world, he reconnects with his childhood friend. Even though many years had passed and fate had played its role (in separating them) she comes back into his life as if they had not missed even ‘a second of the past’. He felt reassured that now everything appeared as it was in the past when they had spent their childhood with each other.

The poet’s friend had listened to his turmoil with attentive care. He felt as if her loving heart was still alive with a purpose and design to rebuild his life all over again. Her love and compassion for the poet reassured him to regain the purpose of his life. He had locked away his love for her in the depths of his heart, but now those emotions began to unfold. The poet feels that it wasn’t the time to reveal his love for her. He thought that he had to wait for an appropriate time until their bonds grew strong again.

Question 8.
The word ‘heart’s mentioned thrice. Correlate them for their different meanings.
Answer:
In the line ‘your heart was pure and kind’ means that his childhood friend had an innocent heart bereft of any bad thoughts. In the line ‘To save my heart from ruin’ the poet implies that he was heartbroken by a tragic personal tragedy and he was experiencing turmoil, which tested his will – power in his life and it seems that he was so depressed by the incident and to protect his sanity (because he might have had suicidal feelings) he had become a recluse, i.e, he didn’t want to lose hope in life and love. At that time he recalled his childhood friend’s familar smile and recalled their carefree childhood days which saved his heart from ruin.

In the line ‘That loving hearts are still alive, the poet felt reassured when his childhood friend had come back in his life. She had listened to his turmoil with attentive care the same way she had done in the past before their paths had changed. Her love for him had not diminished even with the passing of many years. He felt reassured in life and regained his confidence because of her love for him. The poet felt that loving hearts were still alive, both inside him and her.

Question 9.
What saved his heart from getting ruined?
Answer:
When the poet was heartbroken by a tragic personal tragedy he had become a recluse At that time he recalled his childhood friends’ familiar smile and their carefree childhood days vividly. The poet relived those old days in his mind and decided to re-connect with her and she had come back into his life. Although many years had passed after they had grown apart she behaved as if nothing had happened in between. She showed the same love and compassion, she had showered him during their childhood days. This reassured the poet and saved his heart from ruin.

Question 10.
Why does he thank his friend in the end?
Answer:
The poet thanks his friend in the end for taking time to come back to him and demonstrate her love for him, even though they had grown apart for many years. The poet feels that he is not worthy of her love, because he had rejected her and found love in someone else. But his childhood friend’s love for him had not diminished and she had come running back to him as if nothing had happened and showered him with the same love that she had showered him in their childhood days. Thus the poet had felt reassured that her love for him was still alive which gives life a purpose in his life and comes out of his depression.

Question 11.
In their childhood, they shared their dreams but as they grew up they pursued their interest. Explain.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Bonds of Friendship,’ the poet Craig Burkholder writes about his childhood girlfriend who had shared his dreams and aspirations as they grew up together. But as they grew older and with the passage of time he and his girlfriend had grown apart, they started pursuing their own areas of interest and became involved in their career, and forget to keep in touch with each other. Maybe the poet fell in love with another woman and grew apart from his childhood girlfriend. Hence he slowly forgot the blissful and carefree days he and his childhood girlfriend had spent with each other. They never tried to contact each other even when they were in pain and tears.

Question 12.
How did the pursuit of self-interest affect their friendship and life?
Answer:
In the poem ‘Bonds of Friendship’ the two childhood friends, the poet, and his girlfriend grew apart as they grew older and started to pursue their own interests. Maybe their career demanded their full attention so they did not keep in touch. They never tried to contact each other even when they were in pain and tears. The poet says that they even forgot their youthful bliss and the carefree days they had spent with each other.

During the course of time, the poet was suddenly struck by a personal tragic event in his life, which tried him to the core. This incident tested his will – power in life and it seems that he was so depressed by the incident that he felt suicidal and to save himself from such thoughts he began to lead a reclusive life. At that time the poet may have realized that this tragedy would not have happened to him if he had been with his childhood friend so he becomes nostalgic and remembers the old familiar reassuring smile of his childhood friend. The poet relived those old days which he had spent with his friend and therefore was able to keep his sanity intact.

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY

READING SKILLS

Exercise:

Norman Gortsby sat on a bench, in a corner of Hyde Park, with his back to a fenced area of grass, planted with bushes, it was dusk-about 30 minutes past 6 on early March evening. The atmosphere was a mixture of failing daylight, pale moonlight, and light from the streetlamps a little distance away. The place looked empty, although there were a few people walking silently through the half-light or sitting alone here and there on the other benches, they looked like men and women who had lost the battle of life and had come out at this twilight hour hoping, it seemed, to hide their shabby clothes and their drooping shoulders from the curious eyes of their fellowmen. Gatsby’s imagination pictured various things about these sad-faced wanderers in the dusk: their poverty, their disappointments in life, their feeling of failure, and its possible cause. On the bench by his side sat an elderly gentleman, with the expression of a defeated person who refused to admit his defeat.

His clothes were not quite shabby, but they were neither very expensive nor new. As he got up to go, Gatsby imagined him to be a man in whom no one was particularly interested either at home or outside. As his figure disappeared slowly into the shadow, his place on the bench was taken almost immediately by a young man, fairly well dressed but not more cheerful than the man who had sat there before. As if to emphasize the fact he was deeply troubled and unhappy, the newcomer uttered a curse or two as he threw himself into the seat. ‘You don’t seem in a very good temper’ said Gatsby, judging that he was expected to show somehow some sympathy.

The young man turned to him with a lot of great frankness, which put Gortsby instantly on his guard. ‘You wouldn’t be in a good temper if you were in the fix I’m in,’ he said; ‘I’ve done the silliest thing I’ve ever done in my life. ‘Yes?’ said Gatsby without much enthusiasm. ‘I came up to London this afternoon, intending to stay at the Patagonian Hotel in Berkshire Square, ’ continued the young man; when I got there I found that the hotel had been pulled down some weeks ago and a cinema theatre had been put up in its place.

The taxi driver recommended me to another hotel some way off and I went there. I just sent a letter to my people giving them the address, and then I went to buy a soap-1 had forgotten to pack any and I hate using hotel soap. Then I strolled about a bit, had a drink at a bar, and looked at the shops and when I thought of tubing my steps back to the hotel, I suddenly realized that I didn’t remember its name or even what street it was was in. Now that’s a nice situation for a fellow to be in, who hasn’t any friends or connections in London. Of course, I can wire to my people for the address, but they won’t have got my letter till tomorrow; meanwhile, I’m without any money-came out with only a shilling on me, which went in buying the soda and the drink, so, here 1 am, wandering about with two pence in my pocket and nowhere to go the night.

Answer the Following:

Question 1.
What were people doing in the park?
Answer:
A few people were walking silently through the half-light or sitting alone here and there on the benches.

Question 2.
How did men and women look like in the park?
Answer:
They looked like men and women who had lost the battle of life and had come out at the twilight hour hoping, it seemed, to hide their shabby clothes and their drooping shoulders from the curious eyes of their fellow men.

Question 3.
Why did Gatsby speak to the young man?
Answer:
Gatsby spoke to the young man because he judged that he was expected to show somehow some sympathy.

Question 4.
Where did the young man intend to stay?
Answer:
The young man intended to stay at the Patagonian Hotel in Berkshire square.

Question 5.
When did the young man realize that he had lost his way to hotel?
Answer:
The young man had forgotten to pack his favorite soap and went out to buy the soap because he hated to use hotel soap. After he had bought the soap he decided to take a stroll and had a drink at a bar and looked at the shops. When he decided to go back to the hotel, he realized that he had lost his way to the hotel.

EXERCISE:

It was a meal to make a food faddist swoon away in horror. My mother was piling her plate high with a greasy, fatty, fry-up of a mixed grill and tucking in with gusto. When I say ‘with gusto I mean she was eating with the urgent pleasure of a predator at a kill. Although she was born during the reign of Queen Victoria, she was more in tune with the robust food pleasures of the eighteenth century, when a feast was a feast, and nobody had heard about healthy food, diet regimes, or table etiquette that demanded you chew each mouthful thirty-two times before swallowing.

Watching her in action and trying my best to match her appetite, I glibly remarked that if she kept ignoring the words, of the wisdom of the health gurus and diet experts, she would die young. This may sound like a cruel thing for a son to have said to his mother, but the feet that she was in her ninety-ninth year at the time of the meal in question, helps to put my remark into perspective. The simple truth is that my mother had lived through almost the whole of the twentieth century without ever giving a moment’s thought to what was ‘correct’ to eat. She never suffered for even a momentary pang of anxiety concerning the possibility that certain food objects might be bad for her. If they tasted good, they must be good, and that was an end to it. I think it was her lack of anxiety concerning the possible diet that kept her so fit.

If you are perfectly relaxed about what you are eating, your parasympathetic nervous system rewards you by helping you to digest it well. If, on the other hand, you are tensely nibbling a lettuce leaf and agonizing over whether to indulge yourself with another spoonful of low-fat Yoghurt, the tension of your mood ill-suits the pleasure of the table. Your system rebels and the small gains you may have made from fashionable culinary restraints are massively outweighed by the cancer-inducing ravages of acute nervous tension.

Answer the following:

Question 1.
Who was more tuned with robust food pleasure?
Answer:
The narrator’s mother was more tuned with robust food pleasure.

Question 2.
What was the mother piling her plate with?
Answer:
The mother was piling her plate with a greasy, fatty, fry – up of a mixed grill and tucking in with gusto.

Question 3.
When was mother born?
Answer:
The mother was born during the reign of Queen Victoria.

Question 4.
According to the mother if the food tasted good,………………..
Answer:
they must be good

Question 5.
Does the tension of your mood ill-suits the pleasure of the table when on diet?
Answer:
Yes, my system rebels and the small gains I may have made from fashionable culinary restraints are massively outweighed by the cancer-inducing ravages of acute nervous tension.

EXERCISE

In the words of Satyajit Ray’s wife Bijoya, who says she is his ‘greatest critic’: ‘What I admire most about Manik is his simplicity, his honesty, his generosity, his kindness and above all, his ability to mix with people from all walks of life. He is at home with everybody. This, I think, is the hallmark of all great men.

It is true, as some people regret, that their lias been a diminution in the lyricism of his works with age, but there has certainly not been any falling-off in their sheer humanity. Who, after seeing ‘Deliverance’, can doubt that? ‘Nothing human is alien to them. They are words of love,’ wrote Time Magazine’s critic in 1963. “Will Ray redeem his prodigious promise and become the Shakespeare of the screen?’

I would say he has. Throughout his career Ray has continued to experiment with the subject matter and style-surely more than any other director in cinema -but he has always held true to his original conviction that the finest cinema uses ‘strong and simple’ themes embroidered with ‘a hundred little apparently irrelevant details which, instead of obscuring the theme, only help to intensify it by contrast and in addition create the illusion of actually better. ‘These themes cannot come from the passing fashions of the period: they must be drawn from the ‘permanent values may belives in. ‘That’s my whole mental attitude’, he says, ‘and I have to be true to myself.

Like the aging Tagore, contemplating the rise of intolerance all over the globe in the late 1920s, Ray finds it harder now to hold on to his old faith in human beings. Much that he cherished in both Bengal and elsewhere has irreversibly altered for the worse, including the atmosphere of intellectual inquiry and artistic creativity in which his family flourished. But Satyajit himself continues to create, unclouded by cynicism – always hoping as he once remarked to me, that ‘the right people will do the right things’

Answer the following:

Question 1.
Who is the greatest critic of Satyajit Ray?
Answer:
Satyajit Ray’s wife Bijoya is his greatest critic.

Question 2.
What has been done by Satyjith Ray throughout his career?
Answer:
Throughout his career, Ray had continued to experiment with the subject – matter and style, more than any other director in cinema.

Question 3.
What did Ray believe in?
Answer:
Ray believes in ‘permanent values’.

Question 4.
Why does Ray find it difficult to hold on to his old faith?
Answer:
Ray finds it difficult to hold on to his old faith because of the rise of intolerance all over the globe in the late 1920’s. The atmosphere of intellectual inquiry and artistic creativity had altered for the worse all over the world.

Question 5.
According to Ray, ‘Right people will do the …………………….
Answer:
right things

EXERCISE:

According to Vedanta, every child is the repository of all knowledge, purity, excellence and perfection. The Self, the atman, inside the child is synonymous with Chit or Knowledge Absolute. To a world where a child is only a Freudian biological animal, Vivekananda’s Vedantic vision in not only revolutionary but epoch-making.

“The whole of the big banyan tree which covers acres of ground was in little seed which was perhaps no bigger than one-eighth of a mustard seed. All that mass of energy was there confined. The gigantic intellect, we know, lies coiled up in the protoplasmic cell.” (Complete works of Swami Vivekananda vol.2:339-40) The power of positive thinking is immense. Students need to be told in clear words that they have got the infinite potentiality of knowledge, excellence, and joy like Christ, Buddha, Einstein of Napoleon hidden in themselves.

Positive, optimistic, respectful words create within l/50thofa second millions of neurotransmitters of positive energy and drain these chemicals in the entire blood system. Similarly, negative, frustrating, depressing, and pessimistic words from parents of teachers create millions of negative, debilitating, and weakening chemicals in the same blood system within l/50th of a second. Thoughts or even memories can change our DNA, and bring change or cure diseases at a non-physical level.

Answer the following:

Question 1.
What according to Vedanta is every child?
Answer:
According to Vedanta, every child is the repository of all knowledge, purity, excellence, and perfection.

Question 2.
Where does the gigantic intellect get coiled up?
Answer:
The gigantic intellect lies coiled up in the protoplasmic cell.

Question 3.
The whole of the big banyan tree which covers acres of ground was in ………………………….
Answer:
a little seed

Question 4.
How is positive energy created?
Answer:
Positive, optimistic, respectful words create within 1/50 th of second millions of neurotransmitters of positive energy.

Question 5.
Can memories or thoughts change DNA?
Answer:
Yes, memories or thoughts can change our DNA.

TSUNAMIS

Do you know what a tsunami is? Tsunamis are tidal waves that are capable of wiping out entire villages in a few moments. These waves can be caused by several factors.

Sometimes, a tsunami is generated by seismic activity, or to put it in simpler words, by earthquakes. If the earthquake occurs on the seafloor, it is called a submarine earthquake. Volcanic eruptions can also trigger tidal waves. A landslide under the sea (a submarine landslide) can lead to a tsunami. There are other factors that are not as common as the ones mentioned earlier, like a meteorite impact with the ocean, or in some cases meteorological phenomena. Tidal waves can be generated in oceans, bays, lakes, or reservoirs.

The word ‘tsunami’ is derived from Japanese words. Tsun’ meaning ‘harbor’ and ‘mi’ meaning ‘wave’The most comm . cause of tsunamis is seismic activity (earthquakes). Over the past two thousand years, 82.3% of all tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean have been caused by earthquakes. The tsunami that struck the coastal areas of South India and various other parts of Asia on 26 December 2001 and the one that occurred in Papua New Guinea on 17th July 1998 were generated by submarine earthquakes. Tsunamis can also have a volcanic origin. For instance, the tsunami that struck Indonesia on 27 August 1883 was caused by the eruption of. Krakatau.

There has been no historical occurrence of tsunamis produced by a meteorite impact on the ocean. Finally, meteorological events, like sudden variations in atmospheric pressure, can generate tsunamis. Sometimes, a tsunami causes the water near the shore to recede, exposing the ocean floor for miles and miles. You should be aware that such a rapid withdrawal of water from the shore is a clear sign of the impending arrival of the tsunami. The time until the destructive tidal waves arrive may be less than a minute or up fifty minutes later.

Answer the following :

Question 1.
How does a tsunami occur?
Answer:
Tsunami is generated by seismic activity (earthquakes), under the sea, volcanic eruptions, landslides under the sea, meteorite impact on the earth, and some cases of meteorological phenomena.

Question 2.
What are the most common causes of Tsunami?
Answer:
The most common cause of Tsunami is seismic activity (earthquakes).

Question 3.
The word tsunami is derived from………………………
Answer:
Japanese words, Tsun’ meaning ‘harbour’ and ‘mi’ meaning ‘wave’.

Question 4.
Where are tidal waves generated?
Answer:
Tidal waves can be generated in oceans, bays, lakes, or reservoirs.

Question 5.
When did the tsunami strike in India?
Answer:
26 December 2001.

Question 6.
What do you notice when a tsunami is caused?
Answer:
When a tsunami is caused we notice the water near the shore recede, exposing the ocean floor for miles and miles.

EXERCISE

Jane Goodall-A Life in the Wild

Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives, we are told that genetically, the DNA of humans and Chimpanzees differs by only just over one percent. The structure, the anatomy of the chimpanzee brain resembles that of the human brain more than does that of any other living creature. What fascinates me most, of course, are similarities in social behavior, because that’s my field. And here we see such remarkable similarities, such as the long-term bonds between family members, supportive and affectionate that can last through life: the fact that they use more objects for a greater variety of purposes as tools than any other creature except ourselves. Perhaps most fascinating of all is the gestures such as kissing, holding hands, patting one another on the back.

And what is totally shocking to me is not so much the fact that people will use these animals because they’re so alike, it’s the condition in which they are maintained, which in so many cases are totally inhumane. And this of course is becoming more and more apparent as we learn more and more the extent to which the chimp resembles us, not just physiologically, which is why they are used but also emotionally and intellectually.

I think one of the major contributions that chimpanzee research at Gombe has made to science has been to point to the fact that humans do stand in isolated splendor separated from the rest of the animal kingdom We are different, we are unique, we have developed a spoken language, and we can bounce ideas back and forth. The chimps can’t do that. We have intellectual capacities that dwarf even the most gifted chimpanzee, but nevertheless, differences between us on the one hand and chimpanzees on the other, I think are differences of degree rather than of kind. And I think we’ve blurred the sharp barriers that used to be drawn between humans and the animal kingdom as a result of getting to understand chimpanzees better.
Jane Goodall

Answer the following:

Question 1.
Who are our closest relatives?
Answer:
Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives.

Question 2.
Where was the Research made?
Answer:
The research was made at Gombe.

Question 3.
What similarities of social behavior do we find in Chimpanzees?
Answer:
The similarities of social behavior we find in Chimpanzees are long-term bonds between family members, support and affection that can last through life, use of objects as tools, and non – verbal communication gestures such as kissing, holding hands, patting one another on the back.

Question 4.
DNA of humans and chimpanzees differs by only just over…………………………….
Answer:
one percent

Question 5.
Chimpanzees use more objects for a greater variety of purposes as tools. True/False.
Answer:
True – Compared to other animals.
False – Compared to human beings

EXERCISE:

Once a young man, who aspired to study Law, wrote to Lincoln for advice,and Lincoln repliedf’Ifyou are resolutely determined to make a lawyer of yourself, the thing is more than half done already…. Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other one thing.” Lincoln knew. He had gone through it all. He had never, in his entire life, had more than a total of one year’s schooling. And books?

Once said he had walked to borrow every book within fifty miles of his home. A log fire was usually kept going all night in the cabin. Sometimes he read by the light of that fire. There were cracks between the logs, and Lincoln often kept a book sticking in a crack. As soon as it was light enough to read in the morning, he rolled over his bed of leaves, rubbed his eyes, pulled out the book and began devouring it.

He walked twenty and thirty miles to hear a speaker and, returning home, he practiced his talks everywhere in the fields, in the woods, before the crowds gathered at Jones’grocery at Gentry Ville. He joined literary and debating societies in New Salem and Springfield and practiced speaking on the topies o f the day much as you are doing now.

A sense of inferiority always troubled him. In the presence of women, he was shy and dumb. When he courted Mary Todd he used to sit in the parlor, bashful and silent, unable to find words, listening while she did the talking. Yet that was the man who, by practice and home study, made himself into the speaker who debated with the accomplished orator, Senator Douglas. That was the man who, at Gettysburg, and again in his second inaugural address, rose to the heights of eloquence that have rarely been attained in all the annals of mankind.

Small wonder that in view of his own terrific handicaps and pitiful struggle, he wrote:” If you are resolutely determined to make a lawyer of yourself, the thing is more than half done already.” There was an excellent picture of Abraham Lincoln in the president’s office. “Often when I had some matter to decide,” said Theodore Roosevelt, “something involved and difficult to dispose

Once said he had walked to borrow every book within fifity miles of his home. A log fire was usually kept going all night in the cabin. Sometimes he read by the light of that fire. There were cracks between the logs, and Lincoln often kept a book sticking in a crack. As soon as it was light enough to read in the morning, he rolled over his bed of leaves, rubbed his eyes, pulled out the book, and began devouring it.

He walked twenty and thirty miles to hear a speaker and, returning home, he practiced his talks everywhere-in the fields, in the woods, before the crowds gathered at Jones’grocery at Gentry Ville. He joined literary and debating societies in New Salem and Springfield and practiced speaking on the topies of the day much as you are doing now.

A sense of inferiority always troubled him. In the presence of women, he was shy and dumb. When he courted Mary Todd he used to sit in the parlor, bashful and silent, unable to find words, listening while she did the talking. Yet that was the man who, by practice and home study, made himself into the speaker who debated with the accomplished orator, Senator Douglas. That was the man who, at Gettysburg, and again in his second inaugural address, rose to the heights of eloquence that have rarely been attained in all the annals of mankind.

Small wonder that in view of his own terrific handicaps and pitiful struggle, he wrote:” If you are resolutely determined to make a lawyer of yourself, the thing is more than half done already.” There was an excellent picture of Abraham Lincoln in the president’s office. “Often when I had some matter to decide,” said Theodore Roosevelt, “something involved and difficult to dispose of, something where there were conflicting rights and interest, I would look up at Lincoln, try to imagine him in my place, try to figure out what he would do in the same circumstances, it may sound odd to you, but, frankly, it seemed to make my troubles easier of solution.” Answer the following:

Question 1.
What is more important for success according to Lincoln?
Answer:
According to Lincoln, our own resolution to succeed is more important than any other thing.

Question 2.
Explain Lincoln’s interest in reading?
Answer:
Lincoln was so interested in reading that he had walked to borrow every book within fifty miles of his home. A log fire was usually kept going all night in the cabin. Sometimes he read by the light of that fire. There were cracks between the logs, and Lincoln often kept a book sticking in a crack. As soon as it was light enough to read in the morning; he rolled over his bed of leaves; rubbed his eyes; pulled out the book and began devouring it.

Question 3.
Where did Lincoln practice his talks?
Answer:
Lincoln practiced his talks everywhere – in the fields, in the woods, before the crowds gathered at Jones’ grocery, at Gentry Ville. He joined literary and debating societies in New Salem and Spring field and practiced speaking on the topics of the day.

Question 4.
How was Lincoln before he was a recognized speaker?
Answer:
Before Lincoln become a recognized speaker a sense of inferiority always troubled him. In the presence of women, he was shy and dumb.

Question 5.
In what circumstances did Theodore Roosevelt remember Lincoln?
Answer:
Theodore Roosevelt remembered Lincoln when he had some matter to decide, something involved and difficult to dispose of, something where there were conflicting rights and interests.

EXERCISE:

In the morning, when my master reads the papers, I always sit on his lap: and when he takes his nap, I perch on his back. This doesn’t mean that he likes it, but then, on the other hand, it doesn’t mean that he dislikes it-it has simply become a custom. Experience taught me that, it is best for me to sleep on the container for boiled rice in the mornings as it is warm and on a charcoal-burning foot warmer in the evenings. I generally sleep on the veranda on fine days. But most of all, I like to crawl into the same bed with the children of the house at night.

But if one of them wakes up, then it is terrible. The girls-especially the smaller one raise an awful cry in the middle of the night and holler, ‘there is that cat in here again!’ at this, my weak-stomached master wakes up and comes in to help them. It was only the other day, he gave me a terrible whipping with a ruler for indulging in his otherwise pleasant custom When I met Shiro across the street whom I respected, she kept telling me there was nothing as inconsiderate as humans. Only the other day, four cute little kittens were born to Shiro. But the students who lived with the family threw all four of them into a pond behind the house on the third day. Shiro told me all this in tears and said that in order for us cats to fulfill parental affection and to have a happy life, we will have to overthrow the human race.

Answer the following:

Question 1.
What does the cat do when his master is reading the paper?
Answer:
The cat sat on his master’s lap when he read the paper.

Question 2.
Where does a cat sleep on fine days?
Answer:
The cat slept in the veranda on fine days.

Question 3.
Who rises at midnight?
Answer:
One smallest of the girls rises up at midnight.

Question 4.
Four kittens were born to ………………
Answer:
Shiro, from across the street

Question 5.
Why did they think of throwing the human race?
Answer:
They thought of throwing the human race because humans were inconsiderate. The students who lived with the family, in which Shiro was a pet cat, threw all her four newborn kittens into a pond behind the house on the third day after their birth.

DIAGRAMS, CHARTS, GRAPHS

SAMPLE 2:

Bonds Of Friendship Summary Notes chapter 5 img 1

Question 1.
For which of the following years, the percentage rise/fall in production from the previous year is the maximum for Company Y?
A. 1997 B.1998 C. 1999 D. 2000
Percentage change (rise / fall) in the production of Company Y in comparison to the previous year, for different years are:

For 1997 = \(\left[\frac{(35-25)}{25} \times 100\right]\) % = 40%
For 1998 = \(\left[\frac{(35-35)}{35} \times 100\right]\) % = 0%
For 1999 = \(\left[\frac{(40-35)}{35} \times 100\right]\) % = 14.29%
For 2000 =\(\left[\frac{(50-40)}{400} \times 100\right]\) % = 25%

Question 2.
What is the ratio of the average production of Company X in the period 1988-2000 to the average production of Company Y in the same period?
A. 1:1 B. 15:17 C. 23:25 D. 27:29
Average production of Company X in the period 1998 – 2000
= \(\left[\frac{1}{3} \times(25+50+40)\right]\) = \(\left(\frac{115}{3}\right)\) lakh tons.
Average production of Compnay Y in the period 1998-2000
= \(\left[\frac{1}{3} \times(35+40+50)\right]\) = \(\left(\frac{125}{3}\right)\) lakh tons.
∴ Required ratio = \(\frac{\left(\frac{115}{3}\right)}{\left(\frac{125}{3}\right)}\) = \(\frac { 115 }{ 125 }\) = \(\frac { 23 }{ 25 }\)

Question 3.
Which company records the maximum average production in five years?
A. X
B. Y
C.Z
D. X and Z both
Average production (in lakh tons) in five years for the three companies are:

For Company X = \(\left[\frac{1}{5} \times(30+45+25+50+40)\right]\) = \(\frac { 190 }{ 5 }\) = 38
For Company Y = \(\left[\frac{1}{5} \times(25+35+35+40+50)\right]\) = \(\frac { 185 }{ 5 }\) = 37
For Company Z = \(\left[\frac{1}{5} \times(35+40+45+35+35)\right]\) = \(\frac { 190 }{ 5 }\) = 38

∴Average production of five years is maximum for both the Companies X and Z.

Question 4.
In which year was the percentage of production of Company Z to the production of Company Y, the maximum?
A. 1996
B. 1997
C. 1998
D. 1999
The percentages of production of Company Z to the production of Company Z for various years are:

For 1996 =\(\left(\frac{35}{25} \times 100\right)\)% = 140%
For 1997 =\(\left(\frac{40}{35} \times 100\right)\)% = 114.29%
For 1998 = \(\left(\frac{45}{35} \times 100\right)\)% = 128.57%
For 1999 =\(\left(\frac{35}{40} \times 100\right)\)% = 87.5%
For 2000 =\(\left(\frac{35}{50} \times 100\right)\)% = 70%
Clearly, this percentage is highest for 1996.

SAMPLE 3:

The following pie-chart shows the percentage distribution of the expenditure incurred in publishing a book, study the pie-chart frame questions based on your reading of the chart.

Various expenditure (in percentage) incurred in publishing a

Bonds Of Friendship Summary Notes chapter 5 img 2

Question 1.
What is the percentage of expenditure incurred by the publishing house in paying royalties?
Answer:
15%

Question 2.
If for a certain quantity of books, the publisher pays Rs. 40,000 as printing cost; then what will be the amount of royalty to be paid for these books?
Answer:
Let the amount of Royalty to be paid for the books be Rs – x. Then 20: 15=4000:x
then x = Rs \(\left(\frac{40000 \times 15}{20}\right)\) = Rs.30,000

Question 3.
The price of the book is marked 40% above the cost price. If the marked price of the book is 280 then what is the cost of the paper used in a single copy of the book.
Answer:
Let us can say that the cost price of the book is Rs. 100/-
Then marked price is = Rs. 140
Given cost of paper = 25% CP
Let the cost of paper for a single book be Rs – x
Then 140:25 = 280:x
= Rs \(\left(\frac{25 \times 280}{140}\right)\) = Rs. 50

Question 4.
If 7500 copies are printed and the transportation cost on them amounts to Rs. 90,000 then what should be the selling price of each book so that the publisher can earn a profit of 25%
Answer:
Let the cost price of each book be Rs.1oo.
For the publisher to earn 25% profit on each book is = 100 + 25 = 125
Add Transportation cost = 10% of cost price.
Let the selling price of 7500 books be Rs. x
Then 10: 125 = 90,000 : x Rs \(\frac{125 × 90,000}{10}\) = 1125000
∴ Selling price of each book = Rs. \(\frac{1125000}{7500}\) = Rs. 150

SAMPLE 4:

The graph shows student’s strength in a Degree College in a rural area. Read the graph and analyze the data.

 

Bonds Of Friendship Summary Notes chapter 5 img 3

In the academic year, 2015 -16 the number of students taking up science was 430, Arts was 220 and commerce was just 200. In the next academic year, 2016 – 17 the number of students who pursued science fell by nearly 50% to 200 but the number of students who pursued Arts grew by nearly 50% and that of commerce remained static at 200.

Again is the year 2017-18, the number of students pursuing science rose by 40% in 3 50 but surprisingly students pursuing arts decreased drastically to 150 and commerce saw a slight rise to about 300.

But in the following year 2018-19, all the three categories made a sharp rise to 480 in science, 280 in Arts and it seems that commerce saw the most gain in the number students at 500.

English Summary

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