Bookshop Memories Summary Notes

Bookshop Memories About the Author

Eric Arthur Blair (25th June 1903 – 21st January 1950) is better known by his pen name George Orwell. He is an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic. He was actually bom in Motihari, Bihar, in British India. His father Richard Walmesley Blair worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. When he was one year old, his mother Ida Mabel Blair took him and his sister to England.

However, his birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari, has been declared a protected monument of historical importance. George Orwell’s works are marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democractic socialism.

He is best known for his novels Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). The Times ranked him second on a list of ‘The 50 greatest British writers since 1945”; Bookshop Memories is a reminiscence of a real part of George Orwell’s life. It is an exploration into the psychology of customers who frequent a second hand bookshop.

Bookshop Memories Summary

The present extract ‘Bookshop memories’ is a reminiscence of a real part of George Orwell’s life. It is an exploration into the psychology of customers who frequent a second hand book shop. Here Orwell describes the irritating behaviour of book – shop customers.

Orwell writes that when he worked in a second – hand bookshop he realized that book lovers were a rare entity. Although the shop had very interesting books most customers could not distinguish between a good and bad one. The people who collected first edition books as a hobby often frequent it, along with Asian students and uncertain women, who came there for a bargain.

The author illustrates the irritating habits of the people who visited the bookshop. Some people come there to buy books for invalids (patients) others come looking for a book they have read a long time ago, but do not remember the title but remembers it had a red cover.

The author gives an account of some people whom he considers as ‘pests’, the people who haunt every bookshop. These are people who come to sell worthless books. Some people order too many books which they do not intend to buy or pay for therp. The author’shook – shop never sold books on credit.

The people who made large orders never-came back again. The author says that he never believed people who told tall stories about forgetting their wallets at home, when they would ask him to keep the books they had chosen aside and say that they would come back for them later. He calls such people as “almost certifiable lunatics walking the streets”. Some people come to bookshops as it is the only place where they could spend a long time without spending money. The author can recognise such people at the first sight itself.

Besides selling books, the bookshop also sold second – hand type writers and used stamps. The author considers stamp – collectors as ‘strange, silent, fish – like breed, of all ages, but only of the male sex’ He feels that women ‘fail to see the peculiar charm of gumming bits of coloured paper into albums’, women could not comprehend men’s interest in collecting stamps.

The book – shop also sold six – penny horoscopes. These horoscopes were written by a person who claimed to have foretold the earthquakes that occurred in Japan. The author had never read any of the horoscopes but people came back and told him that what their horoscopes foretold had come true. The author makes a funny comment that horoscopes would be considered ‘true’ ifthey said that one is highly attractive to women or if it tells one that his fault is generosity’.

The author considers modem children books horrible things, especially if he see’s a lot ofthem The author prefers to give children books such as Petrenius Arbiter instead of Peter pan. Orwell feels selling Christmas cards and new year calendars tiresome but a good business. Orwell thinks that the Christian sentiment was exploited for selfish benefits.

Orwell states that a phrase on Christmas card catalogues ‘doz. Infant Jesus with rabbits’, has stuck to his memory. The bookshops main side business was lending books. They lent books for two pennies with the borrower having to make a deposit. He says that book thieves love such libraries as they can borrow them for two penny, remove the label and sell them elsewhere for a shilling. Book lenders would rather lose money on stolen books rather than lose customers by demanding a deposit.

The bookshop was situated between the border of Hampstead and Camden Town. All types of people from Baronets to bus conductors frequented the shop. The library received a ‘fair cross – section’ of the reading public of London city. The books that most people borrowed were written by Ethel M.Dell. Books by Warwick Deeping was the second choice, the third were of Jeffrey FamoL The books by Ethel Dell were read mostly by women of all kind and age.

Men read respectful novels or detective stories. Some borrowers read voraciously. It surprised Orwell that men who read lots of books would never read a book twice. He wonders if the whole of that frightful torrent of trash was stored in their memory forever. (He feels that the number of pages they read would cover three – quarters of an acre). Such people never took note of titles or authors, but by merely glancing through a few pages of a book they could definitely tell that they had already read it.

Orwell says that one can judge people’s real taste at a leading library. He feels sad that books by classical English novelists are not favoured by the book borrowers. People ignore books written by Dickens, Thackeray, Jane Austen or Trollope. They scornfully say that such books are old. In spite of such disregard for classical books the author is surprised that books by Dickens and Shakespeare were easy to sell.

Ironically people consider, Dickens as one of those authors whom people are ‘always meaning to’ read. He compares books by Dickens to a Bible, people buy the Bible at second hand book – store with the good intention of reading it. But that intention is always not put into practice i.e, people do not read the Bible even if they intended to read it.

Orwell ironically points out people do not read good books. People pick up books by Dickens because they have heard rumours that Bill Sikes (a character in the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens) was a burglar and Mr. Micawber had a bald head (a character in Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield). People do not read the Bible but they come to know that Moses was found in a basket made from bbrushes and that he had seen “the backside” of God.

Orwell writes that the books written by American authors and short stories were unpopular. People did not like short stories because they found it boring to get used to a new set of characters with every story. Orwell believes that the writers of such stories are to be blamed. He thinks that most modem short stories are utterly lifeless and worthless. But the novels and short stories by D. H. Lawrence are both popular.

Orwell declares that he wouldn’t choose to be a professional book – seller, although people can make a secure living out of it. Book – selling is easy to leam, but also a hard task.

The reason why Orwell does not like to be in book – trade is that he had lost his love for books. One of the reasons is that a bookseller has to tell lies about books and that gave him a distaste for them. Orwell tells us that he loved books before he became a part – time book seller and had bought lot books, all kinds of books. But now he bought a book only if he really wanted to read it. Orwell says that the sweet smell of old pages of a book no longer appeals to him because he associates it with paranoid customers and dead blue bottles (a kind of fly).

Bookshop Memories Glossary

  • Calf-bound folios: A book or manuscript consisting of large sheets of paper folded in the middle to make two leaves of four pages.
  • First edition snobs: Those pretentious people who always only buy or ask for the first edition of the book because they consider them superior versions.
  • Haggling: Bargaining persistently
  • Paranoiacs: One who sufferes from delusions of exaggerated self importance.
  • Petrenius Arbiter: A book for children
  • Peter Pan: A fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J.M. Barrie. He is a free-spirited and mischievous young boy who can fly and never grows up. He spends his never-ending childhood having adventures on the mythical island of Neverland as the leader of the Lost Boys.
  • Touts: A person who tries to sell something with direct persistent approach.
  • Baronents: Members of a British hereditary order of honor, ranking below the barons and made up of commoners, designated by Sir before their names.
  • Priestley: Joseph Priestley was an 18th century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi – subject educator and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
  • Hemingway: Ernest Miller Hemingway is an American short story writer and journalist.
  • Walpole: Horace Walpole, the 4th Earl of Oxford, an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
  • Wodehouse: Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, an English author and one of the most widely read humorists of the 20th Century.
  • Ethel M. Dell: A British writer of over 30 popular romance novels and several short stories.
  • Warwick Deeping: George Warwick Deeping, a prolific Englishnovelist and short story writer.
  • Jeffrey Famol: A British writer known for writing more than 40 romance novels.
  • Galsworthy: John Galsworthy, an English novelist and playwright who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932.
  • Dickens: Charles Dickens, an English writer and social critic, considered the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.
  • Thackeray: William Makepeace Thackeray, an English humorist ofthe eighteenth century.
  • Jane Austen: An English novelist known for her six major novels which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th Century.
  • Trollop: Anthony Trollope, an English novelist of the Victorian era, best known for his series of novels collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire.
  • Hearsay: Rumour
  • Bill Sikes: Bill Sikes is a fictional character and the main antagonist in the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens.
  • Mr. Micawber: Wilkins Micawber is a fictional character from Charles Dickens 1850 novel, David Copperfield.
  • Mosses was found in a basket of bulrushes: In the Exodus chapter of the Bible it is given that Moses, the prophet of the Jews was hidden in a basket of bulrushes near the river by his mother, committing it to the care and providence of God.
  • Fag: Tiring, boring task
  • D.H. Lawrence: David Herbert Lawrence, an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter.
  • Bookseller de metier: (French) meaning taking up the profession as a bookseller.
  • Bluebottle: A small fly of genus calliphora
  • Girl’s Own Paper: G.O.P. was a British story paper catering to girls and young women, published from 1880 until 1956.

Bookshop Memories Questions and Answers

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What was the first thing that struck the narrator when he worked in a second – hand book shop?
Answer:
The rarity of really bookish people.

Question 2.
Who were the common customers at the second – hand bookshop?
Answer:
Frist edition shobs, oriental students, vague – minded women.

Question 3.
According to the narrator, who usually comes to sell worthless books at his bookshop?
Answer:
A decayed person smelling of old bread crusts.

Question 4.
What do the paranoiacs do?
Answer:
The paranoiacs talk in a grandiose manner about themselves and tell the most ingenious stories to explain how they had happened to come out ofdoors with any money.

Question 5.
What do certifiable lunatics in London gravitate towards bookshops?
Answer:
Certifiable lunatics gravitate towards bookshops, because it is one of the few places where one can hang about for a long time without spending any money.

Question 6.
What happens during Christmas time at the bookshop?
Answer:
At Christmas time the author spends a fererish ten days stmggling with Christms cards and calenders.

Question 7.
‘A lending Library’ is also called ‘two – penny no – deposity’ library.

Question 8.
What type ojf books do women usually read?
Answer:
Books by Ethel. M. Dell and the average novel – the ordinary, good – bad Galsworthy – and – water stuff which is the norm of the english novel, (stories that make women cry)

Question 9.
The narrator likes to take up the profession of a bookseller. True or False?
Answer:
False

Question 10.
How did the narrator feel when he saw five to ten thousand books at a time?
(a) The sweet smell of decaying paper attracted him
(b) He felt bored and sick
(c) He felt joyful in their company
Answer:
(b) He felt bored and sick

II. Answer the Following Questions in About a Page:

Question 1.
Write about the types of people who visit the narrator’s bookshop?
Answer:
The narrator’s bookshop had an expectionally interesting stock of books. The narrator felt that only tea percent of the customers knew a good book from a badone. The ‘First edition shobs’ were much commoner than lovers of literature. The oriented (Asian) students were more common.

But Vagne – minded (unintelligent women who came to buy bithday presents for their nephews were the commonest of all. Many people who came to the book – shop would be deemed a nuisance anywhere but these people-came there for a special purpose. For example – one dear old lady would come, searching for a ‘book for an invalid’. Another lady would come looking for a book which she had read a long time ago, but couldn’t remember the titles, but does remember that it had a red cover.

Two well – known types of people, regarded as ‘peste’ by the author also haunt the book – shop. The first type are the one’s who come several times in a day, to sell worthless books. The other are people who order large quantity of books for which they had no intention ofpaying for them.

Some people, who the author considers an ‘unmistakable paranoiacs’ come there select a book, but surprisingly they happen to come shopping, having forgotten their wallet. The author also metions a type of people who are ‘not quite certifiable lunatics’, who gravitate (attracted) towards bookshops, because it is the only place where one can pass their time without spending any money.

Question 2.
Explain the various ‘sidelines’ found in the narrator’s bookshop?
Answer:
George Orwell writes that like most second – hand bookshops they also had various ‘sidelines’ (side business). They sold used type – writers and used stamps and six penny horoscopes. They also sold modem books for children and Christmas calenders and new year calenders. Their main side – line business was a lending library which the author says was the usual ‘two penny no deposity’ library of five or six hundred volumes of fiction books.

Question 3.
Comment on the lending library and the authors who were easily ‘taken’ by the customers?
Answer:
The second – hand book – shop in which the author George well worked as a part time assistant was on the border between Hampstead and Camden town. The subscribers included baronets to bus – conductors. Probably the library subscribers were a fair cross- section of London’s reading public.

The author writes that it was worth noting that of all the books in the library, the books that ‘went out’ the best was were the one’s written by Ethel M. Dell, Warkwick Deeping and Jeffrey Famol. The books written by the author Ethel Dell were read only by women, of all kinds and ages. The men read either the novels it is possible to respect or detective stories.

Question 4.
How do people react to the mention of ‘classics’?
Answer:
The author writes that the ‘classical’ English novelists have dropped out of favour. Nobody is interested in classics by Dickens, Thackeray, Jane Austen or Trollope. At the mere sight ofa nineteenth – century novel people say, ‘Oh, but that’s old!’ and shy away immediately.

Question 5.
Why are short stories not so popular as novels?
Answer:
According to the author short stories were not so popular. There was a growing unpopularity of American books. People who asked the Librarian to choose book for then to read, would warn them in the beginning itself that they didn’t read short stories.

One German customrs usedto say “I do not desire little stories”. When the author asked them why they did not like short stories, they explained that it was too much a boring task to get Used to a new set of characters with every story. They liked to ‘get into’ a novel which demands no further thought after the first chapter.

Question 6.
Explain the reasons given by the narrator for not willing to be a professional bookseller?
Answer:
The author, George Orwell dislikes being a professional book-seller, because while he was working at the second hand book shop he had lost his love for books, because a bookseller had to tell lies about books, and that gave him a distate for them. But the worst feet was that he was constantly dusting and hauling them to and fro.

III. Answer the Following Questions in About two Pages:

Essay Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write in your own words, the narrator’s experiences about books an the customers who visit the bookshop?
Answer:
Orwell writes that when he worked in a second – hand bookshop he realized that book lovers were a rare entity. Although the shop had very interesting books most customers could not distinguish between a good and bad one. The people who collected first edition books as a hobby often frequent it, along with Asian students and uncertain women, who came there for a bargain.

The author illustrates the irritating habits of the people who visited the bookshop. Some people come there to buy books for invalids (patients) others come looking for a book they have read a long time ago, but do not remember the title but remembers it had a red cover. The author gives an account of some people whom he considers as ‘pests’, the people who haunt every bookshop.

These are people who come to sell worthless books. Some people order too many books which they do not intend to buy or pay for them. The author’s book – shop never sold books on credit. The people who made large orders never came back again. The author says that he never believed people who told tall stories about forgetting their wallets at home, when they would ask him to keep the books they had chosen aside and say that they would come back for them later.

He calls such people as “almost certifiable lunatics walking the streets”. Some people come to bookshops as it is the only place where they could spend a long time without spending money. The author canrecognise such people at the first sight itself. The author considers modem children books horrible things, especially if he see’s a lot of them The author prefers to give children books such as Petrenius Arbiter instead of Peter pan.

Orwell feels selling Christmas cards and new year calendars tiresome but a good business. Orwell thinks that the Christian sentiment was exploited for selfish benefits. The bookshop was situated between the border of Hampstead arid Camden Town. All types of people from Baronets to bus conductors frequented the shop. The library received a ‘fair cross – section’ of the reading public of London city.

The books that most people borrowed were written by Ethel M. .Dell. Books by Warwick Deeping was the second choice, the third were of Jeffrey Famol. The books by Ethel Dell were read mostly by women of all kind and age. Men read respectful novels or detective stories. Some borrowers read voraciously. It surprised Orwell that men who read lots of books would never read a book twice.

He wonders if the whole of that frightful torrent of trash’ was stored in their memory forever. (He feels that the number of pages they read would cover three – quarters of an acre). Such people never took note of titles or authors, but by merely glancing through a few pages of a book they could definitely tell that they had already read it.

Question 2.
How have the narrator’s experiences of working in a bookshop altered his Whole outlook on books and the process of reading?
Answer:
The author, Geroge Orwell writes that his experiences of working in a bookshop has made’him lose his love for books. He tells us that there was a time when he really liked books and loved the sight and smell and feel of them.

He tells us that nothing pleased him quite so much as to buy a lot of them for a shilling at a country action. He would sense a peculiar flavour about the battered unexpected books he would pick up in that kind of collection. He used to pickup all kinds of books from minor eighteenth – century poet out of date gazetters, odd volumes of forgotten novels to bound numbers of ladies Magzines of the sixtees.

These books he picked up were for casual reading while he was in his bathtub, or at night when he was too tired to go to bed or to read before lunch. But he confesses that he stopped buying books as soon as he went to work in a bookshop. The sight of thousands of books were boring and even slightly sickening. Fet he says that he buyes books occasionally, only if he wants to read it and can’t barrow. The paranoiac attitude of his customers had made books distasteful for him.

Question 3.
Bring out the lement of sarcasm implied in the narrator’s account of his memories at the bookshop?
Answer:
George Orwell critizes the attitude ofhis book – shop customers with implied sarcasm/He writes that second – hand book shops can be visualized as a kind a paradise where charming old gentlemen browse etemaly among calf- bound folros. He is iomic while saying the bookish people are a rarity. He calls people who grab a novel as soon as it is released as first edition snobs. He refers to women looking for birthday presents as ‘vague – minded women’.

Orwell refers to many people who came to the book – shop as people ‘who would be nuisance anywhere’ but have ‘special opportunities’ in a book shop. He calls people who came to sell worthless books as ‘decayed person’.

The people who spin ingenious stories’ to explain how they had forgottce their wallets at home are “unmistakable paranoiacs”. He refers to people who spend their, time aimlessy at the bookshop as ‘certifiable lunatics walking the streets who tned to gravitate towards bookshops becuase they can spend their time there without costing them a penny. The author can recognise such people at their first sight.

The author sarcastically says that modem books for children are rather horrible things. He prefer to give a child a copy of Petrenius Arbiter than Peter Pan.

The makes fun of the reading habits of London women, he tells us that women of all kinds and ages did not read any books of other authors except those of Ethel M.Dell. The author scornfully delcares “average novels of the ordinary, good – bad, Galsworthy and water stuff’ existed only for women. Here ‘water – stuff means those tragic romantic novels which bring tears in the eyes of women who read them). Orwell is mystified as to why most men read detective novels.

Some of his subscribers read four to five of them every week, but he is surprised that they never read the same book twice. Must readers take no notice of the titles or authors but they could tell if they had read the book or not by merely glancing through a few pages of the book.

The author had keenly observed that most readers dislike ‘classics’ saying that they were old. They also did not read short stories. When the author wanted to know why they did not like to read short stories, they explained that it was too boring to get used to new characters with every story.

Question 4.
What attributes of a bookseller’s profession are evident in this lesson? How does one cope with the demands of such a profession?
Answer:
George Orwell says that any educated person could make a secure living from a book shop. He needs only to invest the right amount of capital and find a good location for it. He feels that th eprofession is not so difficult to learn. If the person knew about the contents of books, it would be an advantage for him.

He regards book – selling as a humane trade. The trade cannot be made a commercial business beyond a certain point. No commercial enterprises Can squeeze the small independent book seller out of existence.

Most book – shop owners work for more than seventy hours a week. They also have to put in a lot of effort and time to procure books. Most booksellers live a unhealthy fife. They are constantly exposed to dust collected on the mass ofbooks they have stored. Though the profession is detracting, it requires a bt of patience to over come them. One should not get bored by the monotonous activity of a bookseller.

Question 5.
“Too much of anything is bad for you”. How is this idea brought out in the lesson?
Answer:
‘Too much of anything is bad for you”. The reason why Orwell does not like to be in book – trade is that he had lost his love for books. One of the reasons is that a bookseller has to tell lies about books and that gave him a distaste for them Orwell tells us that he loved books before he became a part – time book seller and had bought lot books, all kinds ofbooks. But now he bought a book only if he really wanted in read it. Orwell says that the sweet smell of old pages of a book no longer appeals to him because he associates it with paranoid customers and dead blue bottles (a kind of fly).

Bookshop Memories Language Component

Essay Writing

Exercise – 1

Complete the essay on ‘Stress – cause and effects’.
Stress is a health problem affecting people of all ages nowadays. Its due to the pressures of contemporary lifestyle with its compeitiveness, rapid pace and loneliness ……………….

Lately, Stress has become a great problem for many people. We face many problems in our lives and these problems increase our stress level It decreases the quality of life. Being stressed affects our lives negatively in many ways. It affects our psychology; our social life and damages our health. Stress affects people’s psychology in a negative way. It makes people constantly feel upset, nervous and angry. For this reason they start to take drugs which are not always helpful.

Besides, they may become pessimistic because of having bad mental heplth. When they are stressed, they cannot concentrate on even the easiest tasks. Therefore they experience chaos and tension all the time. Being stressed affects our social life. Being stressed makes people anti social.

When they are stressed, they cannot have good relations with people and they usually argue with them. Besides, they cannot adapt new circumstances. New things create more tension than other same things. They find themselves in chaos due to feeling stressed. Also stress makes them get bored when they are with other people. They may not want to communicate with them Instead they keep thinking of their problems.

In the end, they lose their friends. Finally, stress damages our health. Generally stressed people take more medicines; to reduce stress but these medicines might have side effects. They make them feel tired and drowsy. It may also cause many physical; problems in our bodies. Their hair can fall out; they may lose or gain weight.

Stressed people are more open to illnesses. They get ill quickly. For instance, they easily get into depression or have panic; attacks. These people cannot continue their life happily. As you can see, stress is the cause of many illness in human life. It disturbs their; psychology, it affects their social life negatively and it damages their health. There is always stress in our life, but we can fight against it. Stress is an invisible danger and people should stay away from it.

Exercise – 2

Write an essay decribing a busy part of your time – the railway station or the bus stand or the market. Describe both people and things. Describe the sights, sounds and smells of the place. Jot down all the details that you can think of. Prepare an outline and then write the essay.

Busy Scene At a Rail Way Station

Last week, on Thursday, I went to Kempegowda railway station to receive my friend, Nagaraj, who was coming from Hubli. As I didn’t want to be late to receive him, I reached the station early. There was a huge rush of people going in and coming out of the railway station. Since it was the occasion of Dussehera, the rush was somewhat Unprecedented-Parking was full I had to park my bike outside the station. There was a long queue at the platform ticket window.

After taking the ticket I rushed to the platform where I was surprised at the announcement that the train would be late by an hour. I had no option but to wait for the train at station. As I sat on the platform bench I began to observe the scene around. People were hurrying about the platform. Some were reading a newspaper. Some were looking for magazines at the railway book stall Vendors were shouting at the top of their voice to sell their wares. Some were selling books and magazines.

Many of them were selling snacks of different types. Coolies were carrying luggage from one place to another. When the train was about to enter the station people got ready to board on the train. There was a huge commotion all around. People were rushing here and there. Coolies were fighting over each other to take the luggage. Some passengers were haggling with the coolies. When the train arrived, there was pushing and pulling.

Many passengers got down the train, several got into it. I began to search for my friend. Fortunately I was close to his compartment. My Friend got down the train. I ran over to the train to greet him We happily hugged each other. Then we came out of the station and left for our home.

Life at the railway station seems to move at a very quick pace. People move here and there checking up the time of the arrival and departure of trains. Hawkers are busy with their business. Railway coolies in their uniform were rushing with luggage here and there. TTEs were also found moving with files and charts in their hands. Some had to give their charge to their colleagues, while several had to take charge for another journey. It is their routine work.

There are some emotional scenes at the station also. When the train whistles offthe station, those who come to see off their relatives wave a good-bye to them. For many the parting is tearful. People who come to receive their kith and kin have a happy smiling face.

Exercise – 3

Here is the last paragraph of an essay. Can you supply the preceding’paragraphs?
At the end’of the day, everyone was tired. But the day had been full of thrills. At one time we had given up all hope of getting back home. And now, here we were, safe in our homes, warm and comfortable in our beds. Was it true, or was it a dream?
Answer:
Our group of friends thought oftaking a short break to relax in the arms of nature. We decided to go for a one day picnic to Kabini dam backwaters. Kabini backwaters is famous for boating.

We left for the picnic on Saturday. On reaching Kabini dam we immideatly booked a boat ride after haggling for a long time with the boatman. The sky was cloudy, but the boatman, said that this is normal weather in July and we should not worry.

As our sailing-started, it also started drizzling and in a few min¬utes it started raining heavily with strong winds that made the boat rock violently. We could not return and the wind carried our boat further into the dam waters. The next ten seconds were shocking, in one strong gust of wind the boat flew high and capsized right in the middle of the dam.

At the end of the day, everyone was tired. But the day had been full of thrills. At one time we had given up all hope of getting back home. And now, here we were, safe in our homes, warm and comfortable in our beds. Was it true, or was it a dream?

Exercise – 4

Write an essay describing an eventful cricket match or football match. (An exciting finish, or high scoring of goals or a hat trick, or behaviour of spectators, can make a match interesting. Choose any of these or use an idea of your own).

I never lose an opportunity to witness a football match. Last Saturday my friend, Nagraj invited me to watch a football match which was played between National Public College and Central college at the National college grounds. The entire ground was well decorated and a large number of chairs were arranged for the guests and spectators. Both the teams were strong and had won many tournament trophies. The ground was full packed. The match was to start at 1 p.m.

Both the teams entered the ground on scheduled time. After the toss, the referee blew the whistle and the match began. It was expected to be a well-contested and lively match. Both the teams were expecting to score well. During the first few minutes, it was the National Public College team who dominated the match. They struck hard to the defenses of their rival, but Med to score any goal However, they performed brilliantly and the spectators enjoyed the game.

The captain was very tactful and confident. He was hopeful to turn the match in his favour. It was his confidence that instilled new hope and energy in the team. His team was again in high spirit. As a result it overturned the match and gained control over it which was lost during the mid-hour.

In the meantime, the team scored a goal. The goal was appreciated with thunderous applause. The team was cheered by their supporters. Meanwhile, the right half ofthe Central College team was badly injured due to which the captain had to play the double role throughout the entire game. Within a few seconds the first half was declared to be over by the referee.

The players took some rest and refreshments. They drew out strategies to beat their rival. There was a bud noise in the playground The supporters, rushed to the ground to cheer up the teams. The match again started with the whistle of the referee. The National Public college team of was equipped with strategies to defeat the Central College team. But the players of Central college were all the more alert particularly their goalkeeper was very tactiul.

The National Public College team exerted pressure on its rival during the first few minutes, by hitting one after another at the goal of the Central college but the goalkeeper of the rival team was extraordinarily sharp and quick in kicking the goal back. The game became very exciting and thrilling during the last minute.

At one time, the game appeared to be end in draw. It caused a moral boosting to the losing team. There were loud cheers from their supporters. Each of the team was trying its best to win the match. The game was about to get over but surprisingly the Central college scored a goal over National Public College. This was a surprising win which caused a great sensation in the ground. There was deafening cheers from its supporters, but the fighting spirit of the opposite team was also being praised by all. Overall the match was enjoyed greatly by the spectators.

TASK

Write an essay on:

a. Examination System

‘EXAMINATION’ the very word instill fear in the minds of students. Arestless and fearsome situation is observed at the time of examinations. The lessons learnt for a whole year have to be recalled during examinations. As long as an individual is a student, he was to face examinations every year. A students climbs the ladder of education through examinations. The method of examination to judge the learning capacity of a student is an age – old practice it has been in circulation since the advent of the concept of education.

Examinations are an excellent method for students to express their views and Intelligence. Students have to face examinations confidentially and without fear. They have to avail this opportunity to show their talent and intelligence. Many students have the habit of neglecting day to day studies and bum the mid – night lamp at the time of examination. But is it possible to devour all the dinner that you have not eaten after starving for three days? No, it is impossible.

Just as whole – some and nutricious food is neccessary to be taken daily for our physical activity, day – to day studies is also important. Cultivating time bound preparation for examinations with reading, writing and memorization on day to day basis will help us to face examinations without fear and anxiety.

Preparation for examinations is essential. Student should study not only from the point offricing examinations but to gain knowledge. He should approch all subjects and topics equally and enthusiastically. If a student finds any subject difficult he / she should not neglect it but try to understand the subject giving it enough importance along with the other subjects without losing his patience.

A student should have to psychologically make up hsi mind and conscience and attempt to study with dedication and designate enough time for quality studies. But many student? these days to take aneasy path with the aim of passing examinations.

Students become alert and more studious when exams are fast approaching. Most students study earnestly and hope to get though the exams with flying colours. Those students whose aim is only to pass examinations by hook or cook will not have a bright fiirute. A few students are in the belief that they can copy or bribe their way through examinations.

But when that is not possible they become distressed. Such methods are not to the advantage, the best way to face exams confidently is by preparing for examination by studying hard. Many students bunk class and go to films or take to alcohol or drugs, especially the students who find freedom form strict school regime and have gained entry to a college. They become slaves to vices and forget to prepare themselves to a bright future.

Students should always remember the Idiom ‘One who strives hard gets the fruits of the toil’. They should also have in their mind the struggles their parents have to face while educating their children. Every students should have this in their minds and remember that it is their fundamental duty to study and bring honour to their parents.

A students aim should not only be to pass exams but he/she has to imbibe knowledge. The advantage of gaining knowledge should guide them through their whole life. In the by – gone days our elders had very little opportunity for higher studies but the knowdlege they gained is nowhere seen even among our present day master degree holders. When we use our acquired knowledge to teach and guide others then we can have the satisfaction of acquiring knowledge.

It is neccessary for every student to be aware of the methods to prepare for examinations. A students should cultivate the habit of regularly attending classes, he should shun bad habits and way ward company. He should also cultivate the habit of listening to the teacher during classes with concentration. More over he should not be drawn to copying others during tests and examinations.

He/she should try. to understand all subjects and give equal importance to all subjects. A student should also cultivate the habit of referring books other than school books to gain more knowledge. Moreover a good method to remember is through discussions. Students should make use of their free time to hold disscussions. Though dissussions students can exchange each others views and knowledge.

Even if students have a good knowledge of any subject he should not neglect it but continue studing the subject giving it equal importnace. The level oflanguage used to write examinations should be excellent. A student should try to attempt all the questions that appear in the question papers. He/she should write the exam legibally. It is advantageous to attempt questions which you can answer easily. A student should be a few minutes early before the start of examinations. He should not be in a hurry. He / she should have the aim to pass the examination.

Examinations are the ladder to a students future. He has to climb the steps of the ladder with confidence. This confidence can be acquired by diligent preparation. A good education is the foundation to a persons independence and efficiency A educated person is an asset to the society and country.

b. Child Labour

Children are the potential human resource of a nation. But a good proportion of children throughout the world, especially in India, form a part of the toiling masses – destitute, deprived, and disadvantaged. Millions of them work in agricultural feelds, factories, construction industry, and in the hospatility sector. Thousands of children scavenge on street comers and in the garbage dumps, work as domestic helps in private houses.

Most children are forced to work from an early age, starting with running errands for their parents or elders. Low level of education and-non-existent social responsibility of such children can be very harmful and dangerous to the society. They have to be brought to the mainstream by giving protection and educational and economic and social opportunities to develop their potential.

The existence of child labour in India is a complex reality, a social crime, and a crime against humanity. Poverty is the principal cause for the prevalence and persistence of child labour. Large number of dependent children, adult illiteracy, inadequate and inconsistent and low income of the parents are the likely reasons for children to end up working rather than persuing an education. Child labour is preferred because it is cheap and without much liabilities.

The phenomenon of child labour is age – old and there are many hospitality of child labour in histrory. Children are largely employed in bidi, agarbathi, fire cracker hosiery, fancy items, restaurants and in many hospitality industries. India has more child workers than any other country and child labour is on the increase.

Child labour thwart’s their Creativity, chokes their mental and physical growth. The effect in the health of Child labourers is disastrous. These children suffer asthama, tuber culosis, hearing problems, skin diseases and are also prone to accidental disabilities in which they may lose a limb or two or may die a fetal death. Child habourers are exposed to vices at an early age, Alcoholism, and drug abuse is prevalent among child labourers.

According to the study conducted by NGO Shaktivahini in 2006, 378 of the 593 districts in India, are affected by human trafficking, the children being the most affected. They are easy prey for traffickers who lure them from villages with the promise of employment.

The street children are perceived as vagarants by the police and with no legal safe guards to protect them, violence and exploitationare daily routine for them. India has the largest number of street children in the world. Many of them fall victim to sexual abuse and many are thrust into prostitution. The inequitable socio – economic – political ambience, is respon sible for the plight of children.

Though the abolition of child labour is an easy proposition, one cannot ignore the ground realities. There are several laws but the problem is with the implementation. The Indian government’s policy is to prohibit the employment of childrean in hazavdous jobs and regulate their conditions of work in other occupations.

The constitution has made the protection of children below 14 years guaranteed and enfcrcable funda mental right under Article – 14 – “no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or engaged in any other hazardous employment”. Article 39(e) states that children should not be abused and children should not be forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength.

The central monitoring commission which is supposed to monitor crane against children under the juvenile justice Act was amended in2000. This committee has not met even once since the amendment. The Act stated that every police station should have a juvenile police unit but this is still not being followed. The offences against children bill which provides protection against child sexual abuse is stagnating in the parliament.

The National policy of children (1974) was adopted and the government introduced the Integrated child developmentprogramme in 1975. The National policy on child labour was formulated in 1987 to tackle the problem in a phased manner Itaims at strengthing the mechanism for strict enforcement, focusing on development programmes for child labourers and intiating rehablitation schemes for children withdrawn from employment and providing them education, health care and vocational training.

Conclusion

Constitutional provisions and legislations alone cannot combat the menace. It has to be supplemented by comprehensive socio – economic programmes and eduational upliftment. According to child rights activists to avoid arimes against children it is important to have community level child protection mechanisms like community watch dogs and committees for child protection. Child welfare and anti traffiking.

These will create an interface between mechanisms. These can also monitor vulnerable children in communihes and provide a base where people can report and address issues like abuse, exploitation and neglect. Creating spaces within communities and schools so that children can report offences against them can be also done.

To overcome lack of awareness about child labour and child abuse laws, the dissemination of information is also important. But a practical thought must be spared for the plight of children if suddenly deprived of their livelihood. Crime, prostitution and destitution can hardly be a better fate than child labour.

c. Career Planning

Career planning is the continuous process of thinking about your interests,-values, skills and preferences, exploring the life, work and learning options, available to you and ensuring that your work fits with your personal circumstances.Career planning is essential for those in the mining industry to succeed, particularly as the mining industry has been in so much turmoil in recent years which has resulted in job opportunities having shrunken tremendously.

For this reason planning and setting milestones for your desired career path in mining is essential. Doing this will give you a sense of direction, the opportunity to reflect on how your career path is progressing, whether you are achieving the milestones that you have set yourself, and the opportunity to recognize where things maybe going wrong.

In order to progress in your career and achieve the goals that you have set yourself, you will need to plan forward, and work on developing your skill set. You will also need to actively pursue employee development opportunities that may arise and to ensure that you gain the relevant work experience needed.

In order to really succeed, you need to take charge of your career, and to take ownership for shaping it and ensure that it is moving in the direction you want it to go. In order to achieve this takes planning, and will include the following:

Plan forward:

Put on paper where you see yourself going in your career, and plot each step that you will need to reach, in order to get there.

Self-assessment:

Routinely assess your skills, your potential, your strengths and weaknesses and your ability to fulfill your aims.

Self-development:

Once you have assessed yourself always ensure that you pay attention to any loopholes that you may have identified in your self-assessment, and ensure you come up with an action to correct and fill these loopholes.

Work on getting the right experience:

Try to gain as much experience as possible in your job, take on additional projects and work if possible, in order to be able to gain new experience.

Make yourself indispensable:

Remember that in the work place that all moves and promotions are based on high levels of competencies and job performances. You need to be the best you can possibly be, to ensure that you are not overlooked for promotions and future roles.

Networking is critical:

Really work on your networking skills and ensure that the networks that you create are relevant to your job choices and career aspirations. Networking is not just-about making contacts, it’s about making the right contacts and getting to known and earning the respect of those that may be able to assist in your career aspirations.

Find a mentor:

If possible and your company offers this facility, find a mentor. Amentor can help you in obtaining essential knowledge and information that will enable you to quickly learn what is required in your job, and help you succeed. A mentorship program forms important relationships with those that can help in your career progression.

Training:

Keeping up to date with training is essential particularly in the highly competitive and every changing mining industry. Take advantage of any opportunities for training that come your way.

Succession Planning:

Succession planning is a process where employees are recruited, trained and developed to fill each key opportunities will ensure you are constantly developing ahd progressing in your career.

Transfers and lateral moves:

Should you feel you are stagnating in your current role, and that, there is little chance for progression, ask for a transfer, even if it is lateral move, if it means you will gain wider and broader experience.

Career planning is essential in order to succeed. Setting long term goals with no thought process as to how you are going to achieve them often ends in Mure. Lack of experience and knowledge can create pitfalls that make achieving these goals highly unlikely For this reason it is better to. set short term goals which are far more specific and easier to formulate. By ensuring that the short term goals are achievable, and relate to your long term career goals, gives you the best chance to succeed.

Remember that career planning is a lifelong process and that in order to achieve your goals, you need to have a love and a passion for the mining industry, you need to actively search for career opportunities, and you need to ensure that you continue throughout your career to actively and professionally develop yourself in order to achieve your desired goal. You need to set goals and objectives and work hard at ensuring you meet them.

d. Students and Politics

Students of today are the future guardians of our nation’s destiny. They are the architects of future India. Political consciousness is, therefore, an indispensable factor contributing to the growth and development of a nation. Students of India must cultivate a sublime sense of discipline, which is one of the essential requisites of democracy.

Should students take par in politics? It has been one of the most argued questions before Our national leaders. Those who oppose the participation of students in politics put up a strong case: They argue that politics is a dirty game. It creates groups and parties and leads to permanent enmities. It disturbs the peace ofmind of the students.

The primary duty of a student is to pay single-minded attention to his studies. They agree that a student cannot afford to fake part in the luxury of politics. Politics makes a great interference in their studies. Their interest gets diverted from the main aspect. Interest in politics leads s student to be an active participant in strikes, demonstrations and pro-cessions, as a result of which he loses his real purpose in life and goes astray.

Participation in politics thus spoils a student’s career. Those who support the participation of students in politics make out an equally strong case. They argue that education does not mean mere literacy. It means a total add all-round development of personality.

Participation in politics leads to a harmonious development of personality. It makes him aware of what is happening in his country and in the world around him. It also develops in him the qualities of leadership. Instead of being a timid and shy bookworm, he grows into an aggressive, dominating and alert young man who knows how to fight the battle of life.

Participation in politics trains a student to be a good citizen. It gives him training in the democratic way of life. He grows into a responsible and cultured citizen. It creates in him a sense of patriotism. He has a fair knowledge of the world. He develops a debating skill. As a leader he develops such qualities as courage, sincerity of purpose, a spirit of service, and sympathy for his fellowmen and self-discipline.

Student-life is the formative period in one’s life. A student must develop all the qualities in him during this period. It helps him to – lead a successful life. If he is kept totally away from politics, he is likely to grow into a lopsided personality. If we study the lives of our great leaders, we shall find that most of them did take active part in politics even during their student days.

Now, it is difficult to pronounce any verdict in favour of one or the other point ofview. A student should take part in politics but it should not be an active participation. All activities are good if one remains within reasonable limits. Students should, therefore, pay primary attention to their studies. They should, at the Same time, keep themselves informed about what is happening around them.

e. Save Wildlife

Like forests, wildlife is also a national resource, which not only helps in maintaining the ecological balance but is also beneficial from economic, recreational and aesthetic points of view. There was a time when human interference was minimum the number of wild animals was quite high and there was no problem of their protection or conservation.

But, with the expansion of agriculture, settlement, industrial and other developmental activities and mainly due to greed of man, the number of wild animals gradually became lesser and lesser. With the result that several species of animals have become extinct and several, others are on the verge of being so.

Deforestation is also one of the main reasons for the loss of wildlife. Mass killings of wild animals for their meat, bones, fur, teeth, hair, skin, etc., are going on throughout the world. Therefore, the need for wildlife conservation has now become a necessity.

Population growth, expansion of agriculture and livestock raising building of cities and roads, and pollution are among the many pressures on the natural habitat of wildlife. Along with illegal hunting, habitat reduction and its degradation has threatened the bio-diversity of the regions where these are rampant.

Preservation of wildlife does not mean a blanket protection to all faunal and floral species; rather, it implies a proper, judicious control over the multiplication of plants and animals, which interact together to provide a proper environment to man whose very existence is in peril today.

Due to the irrational use of natural and biotic resources of the earth in the past, most of the wildlife has been destroyed beyond retrieval. It is our urgent duty to protect the natural splendor of ecosystems and to evolve a system of co-existence with every living creature upon the earth.

Although must countries of the world are very particular regarding conservation ofwildlife, the number of wild animals is reducing day by day. World Wild Life Fund is the international agency, which is doing commendable work in promoting the protection of wildlife. There are national agencies also engaged in the conservation of wildlife.

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