The Proposal Summary Notes

The Proposal Summary Notes

The Proposal About the Author

Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) was an acclaimed Russian playwright and short story writer, whose works were translated into several languages. His characters include a crosssection of people across gentry and middle class reflecting their attitude, behaviour and social etiquette.

He was a literary realist of precision who presented the secret motives of his characters. It is characteristic of Chekov to weave a simple plot with freedom to the readers to draw their own conclusions. He depicts the trivialities of Russian life of his time devoid of obtrusive literary devices.

The Proposal Summary

‘The Proposal’ is an one-act play written in 1880 by the acclaimed Russian playwright and short story writer Anton Chekhov. The play is a typical example of what is know as ‘Farce’ – A Comic play involving ridiculously improbable situations and events which seem to be absurd to the audience.

The play is set in the country house of a wealthy landlord, Stephen Stepanovitch Chubukov. It involves the humourous and absurd argument between Chubukov, his daughter Natalya and their long time neighbour Ivan Vassilevitch Lomou. The play is an adaptation by Brian Molloy based on the translation by Julius West (1889).

Characters in the Play:

  • Stepan Stepanovitch Chubukov – a wealthy land owner
  • Natalya Stepanovna (Chubukor Daughter) – twenty five years old
  • Ivan Vassilevitch Lomov – a young man and neighbour of Chubukov.

Setting : A drawing room in Chubukov’s house.

The curtains open to the view of Chubukov’s drawing room. A young man of about thirty-five, Lomov enters the drawing room. He is dressed in a jacket-suit and white gloves. Chubukov is exited to see Lomov and welcomes him with a warm handshake. But he is surprised at the young man’s visit. Seeing him in a formal suit he thinks that the young man is on the way to some engagement.

Lomov informs him that he has no other engagement and he had come to meet him. He attempts to give an explanation and tells Chubukov that he is extremely sorry for having troubled him. He admits that it was not the only time he had troubled him for his help. Suddenly he gets excited and nervous and asks Chubukov to give him a glass of water.

Chubukov thinks that Lomov has come to borrow money and decides to decline Lomov’s request for money. Again Lomov hesitantly tries to explain the purpose of his visit. He becomes extremely nervous and starts stammering and stutters to say that only Chubukov could help him although he didn’t deserve it. He also admits that he hadn’t any right to expect his help.

Chubukov expectently and hurriedly urges him to not beat about the bush and come to the point. Lomov takes a deep breath to calm himself and tells him that he has come to ask for the hand of his daughter, Natalya Stepanova, in marriage.

Chubukov is elated yet does not believe his own ears and feels unsure if he had really heard Lomov say so. In his excitement he goes and embraces and kisses Lomov. Chubukov confides Lomov that he had been hoping for this for a long time. He admits that he had always considered Lomov as a son to him.

He tells Lomov that he is behaving like an idiot after hearing the happy news. He calms down and tells Lomov that he will go and call Natalya. Lomov is greatly moved at Chubukov accepting his proposal but is unsure whether Natalya will consent for the match. Chubukov assures him that Natalya will happily accept the proposal. Chubukov exits the drawing-room to call Natalya.

Lomov is alone in the drawing-room. He starts talking to himself aloud. He feels that he is cold and his whole body starts to tremble. He feels the need to steel himself with determination. He tells him¬self that he should not hesitate otherwise he will fail to win the hand of Natalya.

He thinks that if he goes on looking for an ideal wife or for real love, he would never get married. He starts to shiver as he feels cold. He thinks that Natalya is an excellent housekeeper and not at all bad-looking, educated and feels that he doesn’t need any¬thing more from a wife.

His ear starts ringing due to tension in his mind. He is already thirty-five and in any event he should get married at the earliest otherwise he has no chance of getting married. He feels that he ought to lead a quiet and regular life with no upsets. He has a weak-heart and suffers from palpitations. His lips tremble and his right eyebrows start twitching.

He thinks that the worst thing in the way he sleeps or the lack of it. As soon as he hits the pillow to sleep his left side begins to pull and he feels it in his shoulders and his head. He can’t lie down and gets out of bed like a madman and walks about for sometime. But as soon as he lies down again and begins to fall asleep it happens again.

As he is sitting in the drawing-room of Chubukov’s house and worring about his health, Natalya Stepanova walksin. She is surprised to see Lomov because her father had told her that a merchant had come there to collect his goods. However, she greets Lomov and asks about his well-being.

Lomov stands up and bows to her. She begs to be excused for being dressed in an apron. She explains that it was because they had been shelling peas for drying. She asks Lomov to sit down and asks him if he would like to have something to eat. Lomov politely brushes off her offer.

She politely asks him to have a smoke instead. Natalya beings to talk about the weather. She tells Lomov that she is surprised to see him in a formal dress, and says that she is happy that he seems to be looking better. She asks him if was going to a party. Lomov gets excited. He cannot bring himself to explain the purpose of his visit. However he tells her that he will try to make it brief. He begins to speak of their mutual relationship as neighbours. He tells her that since childhood he felt privileged to know their family.

He reveals that even his aunt and uncle, from whom he had inherited the land he now owns, also had great respect for ha father and her late mother. Both their families had been friendly and regarded each other affectionately and in the course of time they had become close neighbours. Moreover both their properties adjoin each his Oxen Medows are adjacent to their Birch woods.

Natalya appears horrified on hearing Lomov say that he owned the Oxen Medows and can’t believe her ears. She asks him if he really owns Oxen Medows. Lomov reconfirms his stand. Natalya bursts out laughing and tells him that he must be joking because Oxen Medows belongs to her family. Lomov protests that it is his. Natalya is unaware of the fact that Oxen bridge belongs to Lomov and asks him how he came to own that piece of land. Lomov explains the Oxen Medows is that tiny patch of land between Chubukov’s birch woods and Burnt Marsh.

Both of them begin to argue endlessly about the ownership of Oxen Medows. Lomov explains that he could prove that Oxen Medows is his because he has the ownership documents of the hand. It was true that Oxen Medows, was once the subject of some dispute, but now everybody knows that they belong to him and tells her that he sees no reason to continue the argument. His aunt’s grandmother had given the free use of Oxen Medows to her father’s grandfather in return for which they had to make bricks for her.

They had used the medows, free of costfor forty years and had got into the habit of regrading the medows as their own property. But the fact was that Lomov’s aunt actually owned the land. Natalya rejects his explanation saying that both her grandfather and great-grandfather believed that their land extended to Brunt Marsh and so Oxen Meadows actually belonged to her family. She tells him that it would be ridiculous to continue the argument. Lomov protests saying that he had the documents to prove that the land belongs to him.

Natalya doesn’t agree and tells him that he must be joking, and she cannot make herself to believe him because her family had that piece of land for nearly three hundred years. Though the land wasn’t really valuable. It was only about twelve acres. However she thinks that Lomov is unfairly claiming that the land belongs to him, and she can-not tolerate such injustice.

Lomov repeatedly tries to convince Natalya to listen to him with patience. But Natalya doesn’t budge and sticks to her claim over the land. Lomov tries to pacify her saying that he didn’t really care about the Meadows but he just acting on principle. He also admits that he is ready to gift the meadows to her. Natalya argues that there is no question of him gifting the land to her because the land actually be-longed to them.

The argument turns into a nasty quarrel between them. She tells him that she had never expected such behaviour of him because they had always thought of him as a good neighbour and friend. She reminds him that in the previous year they had lent him their threshing-machine, even if it meant putting off their own threshing till that November. She accuses him of treating them like gypsies and she considered it as an insult to their family.

Lomov tells her that he doesn’t like to be treated as a land grabber and won’t allow anybody to accuse him of grabbing anybody else’s land. He affirms that Oxen Meadows in his. Natalya threatens him saying that she will send her mowers out to the meadows that every day. Lomov promises to break their necks if they dared to step on his land. They start shouting at each other.

Lomov is extremely excited and clutches his palpitating heart. At that moment Chubukov enters the drawing room. Natalya, urges him to tell Lomov that they ovyn the Oxen Meadows. Chubukov supports his daughters claim. Lomov again tries to explain, but Chubukov impatiently interjects and tells Lomov that he can’t prove anything by shouting at the top of his voice.

He claims that he didn’t want anything that Lomov owns and also didn’t intend to give up anything that belongs to him. He tells Lomov that he would gladly give up the meadows over to the peasants than let Lomov have them.

Lomov rudely argues that Chubukov has no right to give away someone’s else’s land. Chubukov con¬fronts Lomov asking him to be polite while speaking to him. Lomov tells Chubukov that they seem to think that he is a fool and taking undue advantage of him, claiming that they own his land.

He accuses Chubukov of being a land-grabber. Both Chubukov and Natalya don’t back off. Lomov threatens them saying that he will take the matter to court. Chubukov is enraged and insinuates Lomov’s family was famous for taking anybody and everybody to court.

Lomov rebukes Chubukov and warns him to keep his family out of their arguement. Lomov claims that his family had always been honorouble, law abid-ing people unlike Chubukov’s grandfather was was arrested for embezzlemennt. Chubukov ridicules the Lomov’s for being crazy (lu-natics).

He takes a swipe at him saying that Lomov’s grandfather was a drunkard and that his young aunt, Nastasya Mihailovna had eloped with an architect. Not to be beaten, Lomov also jibe’s Chubukov saying that his mother was an hunchback. Chubukov retorts saying that Lomov’s father was a gambler and a cheat. Natalya interjects saying Lomov’s aunt was a gossip and a backbiter.

Lomov gets extremely agitated. He is left foot goes paralyzed. He clutches at his heart. Even in the midst of his painful situation he accuses Chubukov for being a snake and chides him for bribing the voters in the last election. Natalya strikes back at Lomov telling that his behavior is lowly, mean and dishonest. Lomov feels disoriented and staggers to the door. Chubukov follows him ordering him to not set foot in his house again. Natalya challenge’s him to take them to court. Lomov staggers out of their house. Chubukov and Natalya remain in the drawing room.

Chubukov tells Natalya that Lomov was a fool and had the nerve to come to him with a marriage proposel Natalya is surprised to hear that and she chides Chubukov for not telling her the happy news before. Chubukov informs her that in fact Lomov had come dressed in a suit to proposal the marriage. Natalya begins to get hysterical and falls into a chair and starts wailing.

She pleads Chubukov to bring Lomov back immediately. Chubukov real-ized that he had been a fool, having insulted Lomov and throwing him out of their house. He feels embarassed to go and call him back and feels like hanging himself or shooting himself. She blames her father for his inappropriate behaviour. Chubukov runs out and returns back quickly. He tells her that Lomov was coming back.

Lomov comes back. He is in a terrible state. His heart is beating wildly and his foot has gone to sleep and he feels something is pulling at his sides. Natalya beseeches him to forgive them and admits that the Oxen Meadows really belong to him.

She asks Lomov to sit down and suggets they talk about something else. She changes the topic and asks Lomov if he is thinking of hunting that season. Lomov replies that he is thinking of hunting geese after then harvest. He asks her if she knows that his best hunting dog, Guesser, had gone lame.

He thinks that the dog might have twisted its leg or had been bitten by some other dog. He tells her that, Gusser, is his best dog and he had paid not less than 125 roubles to own the dog. He believed that he had got the dog for a very cheap price.

Natalya disagrees with him. She feels that Lomov had been cheated. Lomov says that the deal was a bargain and thinks the dog is of an excellent breed. Natalya proudly tells him that her father had paid only 85 noubles for her dog hamed ‘Messer’ and it was far better than Lomov’s dog.

They again begin an arguement over the superiority of their re-spective dogs. Lomov ridicules Natalya for thinking that Messer was better than Gusser. Natalya argues that her Messer was better because it was young and its pedigree was incomparable to Lomov’s Guesser.

Lomov points out that Natalya should not fail to consider Messer’s overshot Jaw before concluding that her dog was superior because dog’s with overshot Jaws were bad hunters. Natalya does not agree. Lomov explains her that Messer surely was good at chas¬ing the pack but because of his short lower Jaw he would not be able to catch hold of his prey. Natalya is enraged. She argues that her dog was through-bred and ridicules Gusser as a ‘flea beaten old wreck’ with no pedigree.

Lomov admits that his dog is old but he thinks that her day is ‘just a joke of a hound’. They start shouting at each other, heatedly arguing about the merits of their respective dogs. Lomov is again excited and feels palpitation of heart and thinks that his heart is bursting.

At that time, Chubukov again enters the drawing room. Both Natalya and Lomov ask him to tell them whose dog was better in comparison. Chubukov admits that his dog, Messer is overshot but he believes that Messer is the best dog in the district. He also admits that Guesser certainly has his good points, i.e., Guesser is pure-bred, firm on his feet, has well sprung ribs but in truth the dog has two defects, its old and short in the muzzle(mouth).

Lomov begs them to excuse him because he has severe heart murmurs, but continues to argue. He asks them to remember that on the Marusinsky hunting event, his dog, Gusser had run neck-to-neck with the count’s dog, while Chubukov’s dog Messer, lagged behind.

Chubukov explains that his dog lagged behind because the Count had hit him with his whip. Lomov reminds Chubukov that the Count had a good reason to whip Messer because instead of chasing a fox, the dog had started chasing sheep. Chubukov refutes his reasoning and warns him to stop arguning before he loses his temper.

He tells Lomov that he had started the argument because it is natural for anyone to be always Jealous of somebody else’s dogs. He admits that everybody is like that. Lomov again begins to complain about his heart and foot. Natalya teases him to stay at home rather than chase foxes.

Lomov thinks that Chubukov is not fit to be a real hunter. He accuses him of going to hunt with wealthy friends only because he is a sneaky social climber. They begin to call each other names. Chubukov threatens to shoot Lomov like a partridge if he doesn’t stop arguing. Lomov begins to feel faint, he falls into a chair and faints.

Natalya is horrified to see Lomov faint. She thinks he is dead and starts to wail. Chubukov grows apprehensive. He lifts a glass of water to Lomov’s mouth. When Lomov does not respond he thinks that he is dead. He loses his mind for having caused Lomov’s death.

He starts babbling incoherently. He is desperate enough to think of shooting himself to death. Meanwhile, Lomov regains his senses and Chubukov is relieved to see him alive and helps Lomov to a glass of water.

Chubukov hurriedly grabs his hand and puts it into his daughters hand and blesses them. He urges them to get married immediately. Lomov is bewildered. He cannot comprehand what was going on. They kiss each other and call a truce between themselves.

But again they start arguing with each other over the superiority of their dogs. Natalya defends her dog saying that Messer is better than Guesser. But Lomov retorts that her dog is worse. In the middle of their argument, poor Chubukov calls for ‘Champagne’.

The lights go out and the curtains come down indicating the end of the play.

The Proposal Glossary

  • Blabber : chatter
  • Mower : land tool cutter
    Excruciating
  • Palpitation : unbearable heart beat
  • Throbbing : abnormal beating of the heart
  • Rip : tear
  • Yell : shout
  • Sue : take legal action
  • Embezzlement : fraud
  • Wail : cry
  • Stegger : walk uncontrollably
  • Crook : criminal
  • Upstart : insignificant person
  • Hysterics : irrational I uncontrolled behavior
  • Panting : out of breath, breathe with great effort
  • Pedigree : rare breed
  • Flea : bug
  • Obnoxious : hateful
  • Brat : unpleasant child
  • Patridge : a bird

The Proposal Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences :

Question 1.
Why is Lomov formally dressed up?
Answer:
Lomov had planned to propose marriage with Natalya Stepanovna, the daughter of his neighbour, Stepan Stepanovitch Chubukov. So he was formally dressed up for the occassion.

Question 2.
What did Chubukov assume Lomov had come for?
Answer:
Chubukov assumes that Lomov had come to borrow money.

Question 3.
‘spit out’, according to Chubukov, means ___________.
Answer:
to tell him what is in Lomov’s mind without hesitation.

Question 4.
How did Chubukov treat Lomov after he came to know about the purpose of the latter’s visit to his house?
Answer:
Chubukov was overjoyed after he came to know that Lomov had come to his house to purpose marriage with his daughter Natalya. He embraces and kisses Lomov and tells him that he had been hop¬ing for this for a long time and he had always considered him as a son. He gives his blessings to both Lomov and Natalya.

Question 5.
‘Beat around the bush’ means :
a. Going around the bush
b. Evasive way of talking
Answer:
b. Evasive way of talking

Question 6.
Chubukov is confident of his daughter agreeing to the marriage proposal. True / false
Answer:
True.

Question 7.
‘there’s a merchant come by to collect his goods’. Who is the merchant? Why is he referred to like that?
Answer:
Here merchant refers to Lomov, because he has come to ask for the hand of Natalya and proposes to marry her.

Question 8.
What was the subject of conflict before Lomov proposed to Natalya?
Answer:
The subject of conflict was a piece of land about 12 acres called Oxen Meddows. Both Lomov and the Chubukov’s claim that they own the land. Each try to disprove the other about the owners lip of the land.

Question 9.
How did Natalya react after she found out that Lomov had come to propose to her?
Answer:
Natalya is rather astonished when she hears from Chubukov that Lomov had come to propose to her. She feels embarassed and falls into a chair and starts wailing. She grows hysterical and asks her father to bring him back immediately . She threatens to die if Lomov is not brought back immediately.

Question 10.
“Oh, what a burden, Lord, to be the father of a grown-up daughter!” What does it convey about Chubukov as the father?
Answer:
Chubukov had a nasty argumnt with Lomov over the ownership of a piece of land, Oxen Meadows. In his anger he had thrown out Lomov out of his house and threatened him not to step into his house ever again. But when Natalya, comes to know that Lomov had actu-ally come to their house to propose to her. She gets hysterical and asks her father to bring him back immediately. Hence Chubukov thinks aloud that it is a burden to be the father of a grown up daughter.

Question 11.
When does Natalya concur with Lomov’s ownership of Oxen meadows?
Answer:
Natalya concures with Lomov’s ownership of Oxen Meadows only when she comes to know that Lomov had actually come to propose her.

II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words:

Question 1.
Explain how the land ownership dispute overshadowed the marriage proposal?
Answer:
Stepan Chubukov and Ivan Lomov are neighbouring land-own-ers. Chubukov has a twenty-five year old unmarried daughter. Lomov is thirty-five years old and thinks that it is high time to get married and goes to Chubukov’s house to propose his daughter Natalya. When Chubukov is overjoyed when Lomov tells him that he has come to propose his daughters hand in marriage.

He quickly goes to calls his daughter. Natalya is surprised to see Lomov. Seeing him dressed formally she asks him if was on his way to a party. Lomov feels excited. He cannot bring himself to explain the purpose of his visit. He begins to speak of their mutual relationship as neighbours and now in the course of time they had become close neighbours.

He tells her that both their properties adjoin each other-his Oxen Mead¬ows are adjacent to their Birch woods. Natalya is horrified to hear Lomov say that he owned Oxen Meadows. Lomov confirms his stand. Natalya bursts out laughing telling him that he must be joking because Oxen Meadows belonged to her family and they had it for more than three centuries.

Both of them begin a heated argument which goes on endlessly and later Chubukov also joins in against Lomov. They all forget Lomov’s real purpose of his visit. Lomov gets extremely a gititated and feels disoriented and staggers out of their house without reaveling the real purpose of his visit of Natalya.

Question 2.
What are Lomov’s inabilities that force him to think of marrying Natalya?
Answer:
Lomov feels that he had taken a long time to look for an ideal wife, or real love. He feels that he lacks determination. He believes that he needs to marry at the earliest because he is already past 35 years in age. He feels that he had to settle down and lead a regular life with no upsets. And moreover he is not as healthy as one thinks him to be.

Question 3.
Write short notes on how Lomov and Ntalya trade charges against each other the ownership of meadows.
Answer:
Natalya appears horrified on hearing Lomov say that he owned the Oxen Meadows and can’t believe her ears. She asks him if he really owns Oxen Meadows. Lomov reconfirms his stand. Natalya bursts out laughing and tells him that he must be joking because Oxen Meadows belongs to her family. Lomov protests that it is his. Natalya is unaware of the fact that Oxen bridge belongs to Lomov and asks him how he came to own that piece of land.

Lomov explains the Oxen Medows is that tiny patch of land between Chubukov’s birch woods and Burnt Marsh. Both of them begin to argue endlessly about the ownership of Oxen Medows. Lomov ex-plains that he could prove that Oxen Meadows is his because he has the ownership documents of the land.

It was true that Oxen Meadows, was once the subject of some dispute, but now everybody knows that they belong to him and tells her that he sees no reason to continue the argument. His aunt’s grandmother had given free use of Oxen Medows to her father’s grandfather in return for which they had to make bricks for her. They had used the Meadows, free of costfor forty years and had got into the habit of regrading the Meadows as their own property.

But the fact was that Lomov’s aunt ac¬tually owned the land. Natalya rejects his explanation saying that both her grandfather and great-grandfather believed that their land extended to Brunt Marsh and so Oxen Meadows actually belonged to her family. She tells him that it would be ridiculous to continue the argument. Lomov protests saying that he had the documents to prove that the land belongs to him.

Natalya doesn’t agree and tells him that he must be joking, and she cannot make herself to believe him because her family had that piece of land for nearly three hundred years though the land wasn’t really valuable. It was only about twelve acres. However she thinks that Lomov is unfairly claiming that the land belongs to him, and she cannot tolerate such injustice.

Lomov repeatedly tries to convince Natalya to listen to him with patience. But Natalya doesn’t budge and sticks to her claim over the land. Lomov tries to pacify her saying that he didn’t really care about the Meadows but he just acting on principle. He also admits that he is ready to gift the Meadows to her. Natalya argues that there is no question of him gifting the land to her because the land actually belonged to them.

The argument turns into a nasty quarrel between them. She tells him that she had never expected such behaviour of him because they had always thought of him as a good neighbour and friend. She reminds him that in the previous year they had lent him their threshing-machine, even if it meant putting off their own threshing till that November. She accuses him of treating them like gypsies and she considered it as an insult to their family.

Lomov tells her that he doesn’t like to be treated as a land grabber and won’t allow anybody to accuse him of grabbing anybody else’s land. He reaffirms that Oxen Meadows in his. Natalya threatens him saying that she will send her mowers out to the Meadows that very day. Lomov promises to break their necks if they dared to step on his land. They start shouting at each other.

Question 4.
How do Lomov and Chubukov target each other’s family members?
Answer:
While Lomov and Natalya are having a heated argument about the ownership of Oxen Meadows, Chubukov comes to the drawing room.
Natalya, urges him to tell Lomov that they own the Oxen Meadows. Chubukov supports his daughters claim. Lomov again tries to explain, but Chubukov impatiently interjects and tells Lomov that he can’t prove anything by shouting at the top of his voice.

He claims that he didn’t want anything that Lomov owns and also didn’t intend to give up anything that belongs to him. He tells Lomov that he would gladly give up the Meadows over to the peasants than let Lomov,have it. Lomov rudely argues that Chubukov has no right to give away someone else’s land. Chubukov confronts Lomov asking him to be polite while speaking to him.

Lomov tells Chubukov that they seem to think that he is a fool and taking undue advantage of him, claiming that they own his land. He accuses Chubukov of being a land-grabber. Both Chubukov and Natalya don’t back off. Lomov threatens them saying that he will take the matter to court. Chubukov is enraged and insinuates Lomov’s family was famous for taking anybody and everybody to court.

Lomov rebukes Chubukov and warns him to keep his family out of their argument. Lomov claims that his family had always been honorouble, law abiding people unlike Chubukov’s grandfather was arrested for embezzlement.

Chubukov ridicules the Lomov’s for being crazy (lunatics). He takes a swipe at him saying that Lomov’s grandfather was a drunkard and that his young aunt, Nastasya Mihailovna had eloped with an architect. Not to be beaten, Lomov also jibe’s Chubukov saying that his mother was a hunchback. Chubukov retorts saying that Lomov’s father was a gambler and a cheat. Natalya interjects saying Lomov’s aunt was a gossip and a backbiter.

Question 5.
Explain the argument of Lomov and Natalya over the superiority of their dogs Messer and Guesser.
Answer:
An heated argument over the ownership of the Oxen Meadows leads Lomov and Chubukov to target each other’s family members. Chubukov is enraged and asks Lomov to leave and never step into his house again. Lomov is disoriented and staggers out of the door. After Lomov leaves Chubukov tells Natalya the Lomov had proposed to marry her. Natalya is surprised to hear that and she chides Chubukov for not telling her the happy news before. She pleads Chubukov to bring back Lomov immediately. Chubukov goes and brings Lomov back to their house.

Natalya beseeches him to forgive them and admits that the Oxen Meadows really belong to him She asks Lomov to sit down and suggests they talk about something else. She changes the topic and asks Lomov if he is thinking of hunting that season.

Lomov replies that he is thinking of running geese after the harvest. He asks her if she knows that his best hunting dog, Guesser, had gone lame. He thinks that either the dog might have twisted its leg or had been bitten by some other dog. He tells her that, Guesser, is his best dog and he had paid not less than 125 Roubles to own the dog.

He believed that he had got the dog for a very cheap price. Natalya disagrees with him. She feels that Lomov had been cheated. Lomov says that the deal was a bargain and thinks the dog is of an excellent breed. Natalya proudly tells him that her father had paid only 85 roubles for her dog named ‘Messer’ and it was far better than Lomov’s dog.

They again begin an argument over the superiority of their respective dogs. Lomov ridicules Natalya for thinking that Messer was better than Guesser. Natalya argues that her Messer was better because it was young and its pedigree was incomparable to Lomov’s Guesser. Lomov points out that Natalya should not fail to consider Messer’s over shot jaw before concluding that her dog was superior because dog’s with over shot jaws were bad hunters. Natalya does not agree. Lomov explains her that Messer surely was good at chasing the pack but because of his short lower jaw he would not be able to catch hold of his prey. Natalya is enraged. She argues that her dog was through-bred and ridicules Guesser as a ‘flea beaten old wreck’ with no pedigree.

Lomov admits that his dog is old but he thinks that her dog is ‘just a joke of a hound’. They start shouting at each other, heatedly arguing about the merits of their respective dogs. Lomov is again excited and feels palpitation of heart and thinks that his heart is bursting.

At that time, Chubukov again enters the drawing room. Both Natalya and Lomov ask him to tell them whose dog was better in comparison. Chubukov admits that his dog, Messer is overshot but he believes that Messer is the best dog in the district. He also admits that Guesser certainly has his good points, i.e., Guesser is pure-bred, firm on his feet, has well sprung ribs but in truth the dog has two defects, it’s old and short in the muzzle (mouth).

Lomov begs them to excuse him because he has severe heart murmurs, but continues to argue. He asks them to remember that on the Count Marusinsky hunting event, his dog, Gusser had run neck- to-neck with the count’s dog, while Chubukov’s dog Messer, lagged behind. Chubukov explains that his dog lagged behind because the Count had hit him with his whip.

Lomov reminds Chubukov that the count had a good reason to whip Messer because instead of chasing a fox, the dog had started chasing sheep. Chubukov refutes his reasoning and warns him to stop arguing before he loses his temper. He tells Lomov that he had started the argument because it is natural for anyone to be always jealous of somebody else’s dogs. He admits that everybody is like that. Lomov again begins to complain about his heart and foot.

Question 6.
Is Netalya right when she says that she does not like people who refuse to face facts ? Substantiate.
Answer:
No, Natalya is wrong when she says that she does not like people who refuse to face facts. Firstly, she refuses to agree to Lomov’s claim that Oxen Meadows belongs to him. She is adamant and refuses to acknowledge Lomov’s claim over Oxen Meadows even when he tells that he has got documents to prove it. She unfairly argues that the land is with they family for more than three centuries.

Later when the heatedly argue about the superiority of their respective dogs, Natalya again refuses to consider that Lomov’s dog, Gusser is more superior than her dog, Messer. Even her father Chubukov agrees that Gusser is pure-bred, firm on his feet, has well- sprung ribs but he has only two defects: he’s old and bit short in the muzzle.
Natalya could have agreed that both their dogs were good hunting dogs but she is concited enough to hold to her arguement that her dog is better than Lomov’s and she still has the nerve to say that she does not like people who refuse to face facts.

III. Answer the following questions in 200-250 words :

Question 1.
Lomov is tense to talk about marriage but confronts Stepanovna on property ownership. Comment on the paradoxes of Russian society as brought out in the play.
Answer:
‘The Proposal’ is an one act play, by the Russian dramatist Anton Chekhov. The play throws light on the lifestyle of the 19th centuary Russian landed gentry. These landlords lend a laid back life while the peasants toil on their lands to make them wealthy. They were full of vanity and pride.

In the play, Stepen Chubukov was a wealthy landlord who owned hundreds of acres of land. He led a life of ease and comfort. He had a daughter, Natalya, was unmarried even at the age of twenty-five. Being a rich landlord, Chubukov acted lazy and had made no serious efforts to find an ideal groom for Natalya.

Lomov, is his neighbour. He has inherited a piece of land of about 12 acres, The Oxen Meadows, from his aunt. The Oxen Meadows his wedged between the properties of Chubukov. Lomov is a man of poor health. He suffers from pulpitations of the heart, wherever he is excited. He finds it difficult to sleep at night because he experience a pain in the sides during the night. He is of thirty five years of age and still unmarried.

One day he dresses up in a formal suit and goes to Chubukov’s house to seek the hands of his daughter Natalya, as his bride. Chubukov thinks that Lomov has come to borrow money and makes up his mind to not lend him any money. But he greets him warmly. When he comes to know that Lomov has come to propose his daughter, he is overjoyed and embraces him.

He assures Lomov that Natalya would surely welcome the Proposal. He goes to inform Natalya. But he tells her that ‘some merchant has come to claim his gnods’. It is rather absurd and lowly for a father to consider his daughter as ‘goods’ and the potential groom as a ‘Merchant’. It can be understood that even the rich landlords of the 19th centuary. considered their daughters as ‘goods’ who can be bought or sold.

Lomov feels that it is high time he gets married because he is already over 35 years of age. He believes that if he takes time to took for an ideal wife, or for real love, then he will never ever get married. He feels that he ought to lead a quiet and regular life with no upsets. He thinks the Natalya would make an ideal wife as she is an excellent house keeper and also educated.

Natalya is genuinly pleased to see Lomov. Lomov hesitates to tell her the real purpose of his visit. He beats about the bush, telling her that the Lomovs and Chubukov’s has become close neighbours over the time. He tells that he felt privileged to know Chubukov family. He reveals that he had inherited the Oxen Meadows, a piece of land wedged between the vast lands of the Chubukov from his late aunt.

Natalya refutes his claim over Oxen Meadows and claims that Oxen Meadows were with her family for over three hundred centuries. Again Lomov claims that Oxen Meadows is his and he has documents to prove it. They go on arguing heatedly over the ownership of Oxen Meadows, while the ‘Proposal’ is forgotten. Chubukov also joins in affirming the claim of their family over Oxen Meadows. Both Lomov and the Chubukov’s drag their family into the fight and start calling names and Lamish each other’s ancestors.

The Chubukov’s and Lomov behave meanly with each other. They forget that Lomov had come to Propose Natalya. Chubukov angrily throws out Lomov warning him never to step in his house ever again. But when Natalya comes to know that Lomov had actually come to Propose her, she grows hysterical and beeseeches her father to bring back Lomov immediately, Chubukov thinks that it is a great burden for a father to have an unmarried daughter. Lomov comes back. Natalya apologizes for her folly and argues that Oxen Meadows is actually his.

But again they start quarelling over the superiority of their respective hunting dogs Guesser and Messer. Being a weak-hearted person Lomov faints. Natalya grows hysterical thinking that he is dead. Chubukov revives him. Lomov is incoherent. Chubukov puts Natalya’s hand into Lomov’s and blesses them. But they continue to argue over the pedigree of their dogs.

Chubukov appears relieved and calls for Champagne to celebrate the engagement of Natalya and Chubukov. The play brings out the pettiness of the rich landlords. The play examines the true nature of marriage. It explores the process of getting married is a farce aimed at gaining economic stability. In 19th Russia, marriage was a means of economic stability for most people and to be relieved of the social pressure of being unmarried.

Question 2.
What are the attitude factors common to arguments about ownership of land and pedigree of the dogs?
Answer:
An heated argument over the ownership of the Oxen Meadows leads Lomov and Chubukov to target each other’s family members. Chubukov is enraged and asks Lomov to leave and never step into his house again. Lomov is disoriented and staggers out of the door. After Lomov leaves Chubukov tells Natalya the Lomov had proposed to marry her. Natalya is surprised to hear that and she chides Chubukov for not telling her the happy news before. She pleads Chubukov to bring back Lomov immediately. Chubukov goes and brings Lomov back to their house.

Natalya beseeches him to forgive them and admits that the Oxen Meadows really belong to him She asks Lomov to sit down and suggests they talk about something else. She changes the topic and asks Lomov if he is thinking of hunting that season.

Lomov replies that he is thinking of running geese after the harvest. He asks her if she knows that his best hunting dog, Guesser, had gone lame. He thinks that either the dog might have twisted its leg or had been bitten by some other dog. He tells her that, Guesser, is his best dog and he had paid not less than 125 Roubles to own the dog.

He believed that he had got the dog for a very cheap price. Natalya disagrees with him. She feels that Lomov had been cheated. Lomov says that the deal was a bargain and thinks the dog is of an excellent breed. Natalya proudly tells him that her father had paid only 85 roubles for her dog named ‘Messer’ and it was far better than Lomov’s dog.

They again begin an argument over the superiority of their respective dogs. Lomov ridicules Natalya for thinking that Messer was better than Guesser. Natalya argues that her Messer was better because it was young and its pedigree was incomparable to Lomov’s Guesser. Lomov points out that Natalya should not fail to consider Messer’s over shot jaw before concluding that her dog was superior because dog’s with over shot jaws were bad hunters.

Natalya does not agree. Lomov explains her that Messer surely was good at chasing the pack but because of his short lower jaw he would not be able to catch hold of his prey. Natalya is enraged. She argues that her dog was through-bred and ridicules Guesser as a ‘flea beaten old wreck’ with no pedigree.

Lomov admits that his dog is old but he thinks that her dog is ‘just a joke of a hound’. They start shouting at each other, heatedly arguing about the merits of their respective dogs. Lomov is again excited and feels palpitation of heart and thinks that his heart is bursting.

At that time, Chubukov again enters the drawing room. Both Natalya and Lomov ask him to tell them whose dog was better in comparison. Chubukov admits that his dog, Messer is overshot but he believes that Messer is the best dog in the district. He also admits that Guesser certainly has his good points, i.e., Guesser is pure-bred, firm on his feet, has well sprung ribs but in truth the dog has two defects, it’s old and short in the muzzle (mouth).

Lomov begs them to excuse him because he has severe heart murmurs, but continues to argue. He asks them to remember that on the Count Marusinsky hunting event, his dog, Gusser had run neck- to-neck with the count’s dog, while Chubukov’s dog Messer, lagged behind. Chubukov explains that his dog lagged behind because the Count had hit him with his whip.

Lomov reminds Chubukov that the count had a good reason to whip Messer because instead of chasing a fox, the dog had started chasing sheep. Chubukov refutes his reasoning and warns him to stop arguing before he loses his temper. He tells Lomov that he had started the argument because it is natural for anyone to be always jealous of somebody else’s dogs. He admits that everybody is like that. Lomov again begins to complain about his heart and foot.

Question 3.
How does the play portray conflict of interests, relationship and conceit?
Answer:
Conflict of Interests:
‘The Proposal’ by Anton Chekhov a humourous and faracial one-act play. Lomov had visited his neighbour Chubukov’s house to ask for his daughter Natalya’s hand in marriage. Chekhov has brought out the theme of conflict effectively throught his Characters.

At the begining of the play, when Lomov goes to Chubukov’s house he thinks that Lomov had come to borrow money and decides to not give him any money. But he pretends to be glad to see Lomov and greets him a warm welcome. He is truely elated when Lomov tells him that h had come to seek his daughter Natalya’s hand in Marriage and assures him that he may also count on her consent.

The conflict comes to fore when Natalya first comes out to greet Lomov. Lomov does not know how to propose to her and starts blabbering about how Lomovs and the Chubukov had been close neighbours for years and that his land, the Oxen Meadows is adjacent to their land, the Birchwoods. Natalya refutes his claim our Oxen Meadows. Lomov confidently claims that he has documents to prove his claim.

The disagreement becomes so intense that Lomov forgets about the marriage proposal. The conflict affects his health and he becomes extremely agitated with palpitations of his heart. Chubukov also forgets that Lomov had come to propose Natalya and angrily throws him out ordering him not to step inside his house again.

When Natalya comes to know that Lomov had actually come to propose to her, she realizes her folly and grows hysterical. She pleads Chubukov to bring back Lomov immediately. Lomov comes back ^nd she apologizes him and agrees that Oxen Meadows belong to him. She urges Lomov to change the subject and asks him if he planned to go hunting that season. Again they start a silly argument over the superiority of their respective hunting dogs.

Both are adamant and do not concede defeat. Chubukov also joins in and in the minds of the heated argument, Lomov faints. Chubukov revives him and while he is still incohrent he places Natalya’s hand in his hand blesses then. Even then Natalya and Lomov continue their argument but Chubukov feels relieved and happy and calls for champagne to celebrate their engagement.

Relationship:
The relationship between Lomov’s and Chubukov’s is based on economic factors. Though they had an uneasy relationship, each put up with the other for the sake of gain. The Chubukov’s have been using the Oxen Meadows, which actually belonged to Lomovs aunt and eventually Lomov had inherited.

Lomov tukes advantages of this and it seems that he had the habit of borrowing money from Chubukov and had never repaid the loans. This is evident from the fact that when Lomov visits Chubukov’s house to seek Natalya’s hand, Chubukov thinks that Lomov had come to borrow money and decides to refuse lending any more money to Lomov.

Outwardly, the Lomov’s and Chubukov’s seem to be friendly with each other, but they secretely grudge each other. Though Chubukov loves his daughter dearly and supports her in every way, he thinks that she is a butden on him. In fact Lomov had decided to seek Natalya’s hand for monetary gain and to enhance his social status.

Conceit:
Both the Chubukov’s and Lomov are excessively proud of themselves. Chubukov is a wealthy land-lord. Lomov visits his house to seek his daughter’s hand in marriage. Chubukov assumes that lomov had come to borrow money from him and decides to not lend him any money. But he makes a show of friendliness towards Lomov and greets him warmly.

Later, Lomov tries to propose to Natalya. He is very excited and cannot express the real purpose of his visit. He begins to speak about their mutual relationship and shows his appreciation for their .friendly relationship with each other. Moreover both their properties adjoin each other – his Oxen Meadows are adjacent to their birch wood. Natalya vehemently refutes his claim and even Chubukov supports her.

Thought Lomov explains that he has got documents to prove his ownership, they proudly declare that their family owned Oxen Meadows for more than three centuries. Natalya says to Lomov that though the land wasn’t valuable, she thinks that he is unfriendly claiming that the land belongs to him and she cannot tolerate injustice. Lomov tells her that he is ready to gift Oxen Meadows to her.

Natalya argues that their is no question of him gifting it to her as it actually belongs to her family. She tells him that she never expected such behaviour of him, because they had always thought of him as a good neighbour and friend. She is proud to remind him that in the previous year they had lent him their threshing-machine, even if it meant putting off their own threshing till that November. She accuses him of treading them as gypsies and she considered it as an insult to their family. Natalya threaten’s Lomov saying that she will send her howers out to the meadows that very day.

Chubukov claims that he didn’t want anything that Lomov owns and also didn’t intend to give up anything that belongs to him. He proudly and magnanimously declares that he would gladly give up the Oxen Meadows over to the peasants than let Lomov have it Chubukov.

Question 4.
Write an essay on the theme of the play.
Answer:
A major theme in The Proposal is Chekhov’s satire of the landowning class in 19th-century Russia. The landowners were a small, privileged class who were notoriously conservative in clinging to old values that defined them. They knew their advantage in society was based mainly on owning land, as opposed to having a title of nobility.

As a result, they opposed any reforms that would allow their peasants to own a piece of land. Chekhov makes fun of the landowners by depicting Lomov, Natalya, and Chubukov as obsessed about ownership of a worthless tract called Oxen Meadows. Their pride and greed are so extreme that they override a marriage proposal. Lomov calls Chubukov a land grabber, but, in truth, they all are.

Additionally, Chekhov depicts the three characters as being so stubborn that they can’t admit being wrong. Natalya tells Lomov she was mistaken about owning Oxen Meadows, but she really doesn’t believe it. She just says this to get Lomov to propose to her.

Chekhov satirizes the characters’ stubbornness over Oxen Meadows because landowners believed in their right to own huge amounts of land and would never consider budging on this position.

Finally, Chekhov shows the characters as valuing superficial appearance over substance. They give the appearance of being solid citizens who support traditional values, including marriage. However, through his depiction of Lomov, Natalya, and Chubukov, Chekhov shows that for some landowners this appearance is false. What they really care about is owning land and appearing virtuous and right, while in reality they care little about Christian values. For example, instead of being kind to each other, they are mean and childish.

Chekhov’s theme of romance and marriage runs throughout each section of the comedy. The narrative satirizes marriage mainly through the use of situational irony. This type of irony involves a difference between what is expected to happen and what does happen.

The audience expects Lomov’s proposal to Natalya to be filled with romantic sentiments, loving caresses, and perhaps even tears of joy. However, what the audience gets is bickering between two petty people who each want to prove they are right above anything else. Romantic love has been thrown out the window.

Chubukov’s attitude toward the prospective union of Natalya and Lomov also skewers the ideas of romance and marriage. This character is older than Lomov and has seen more of life. As a result, he believes, as a person grounded by his class, that most of life is a charade, in which people go through the motions while not really meaning what they say. Because of this, Chekhov constantly has Chubukov mouthing phrases such as “and so on and all that.”

This implies that Chubukov sees people performing rote behaviors that are expected in certain social situations. Thus, for Chubukov, a marriage proposal is a formality in which each participant expresses certain expected sentiments like love, loyalty, and so on. Whether they truly mean these sentiments is another matter.

Chubukov’s attitude reaches a climax at the end of the play, when he orders a dazed Lomov to get married and sticks the suitor’s hand in Natalya’s hand.

Then Chubukov says, “She’s willing and all that and so on.” Thus with no romantic gestures Lomov becomes engaged without really knowing what’s happening. However, in a society in which appearance matters more than substance, this doesn’t matter.

The formalities have been observed and the charade has been acted out, much to the relief of Chubukov. The play’s last line has Chubukov saying, “And they lived happily ever after!” This is the typical, expected ending of a fairy-tale romance. But the truth of this matter, as the bickering Lomov and Natalya show, is clearly going to be quite the opposite.

English Summary

Measurements Summary Notes

Measurements Summary Notes

Measurements About The Author

The Assamese poet was the vice-principal of a college at Guwahati. He has authored many books and has been awarded Padma Bhushan. This poem is from the anthology titled ‘Dancing Earth’.

Measurements Summary

The Measurement is a metaphorical poem that can be interpreted in numerous ways. It is the manifestation of the spirit of nationhood in the background of the reign of terror that broke out in North-East India. The poet wishes to stitch a garment that can metaphorically stitch all states including North Eastern states in into a nation called ‘India’.

Evening time perhaps means that one generation has suffered enough that it has not been able to bring in unity and that that generation is already old and tired. So, the poet is calling the suffering people to go to the tailor (can mean the government) to give account of the area, culture, language, sports, education, achievements, resources, and many such strengths of the place so that the tailor can consider taking measurement. The poet also says that people are lovely and want to be accepted by the nation as their own.

The poet at least wants the tailor to take measurements so that stitching can happen later. He wants the tailor to consider all parts (meaning the considerable contributions by the place to the nation. So many attempts have failed in convincing the tailor to at least take the measurement in the first instance. Many proposals, requisitions have reached the tailor but in vain. There are many Christian accepted by the Arabians but here in our own nation, we (Assam) are unable to be identified as Indians by the mainland. Year after year, we show our wish but by then, it is time to leave and the next generation will want to consider many other changes and achievements to be measured. If the place keeps longing for unity, when will someone stitch the garment to fit man?

It is very painful to read and understand the wish but the place is not included as one in the nation. The poem can also be read as a critique of modern civilization. It is development and progression that before all humans can unite and live peacefully in harmony, there is change by the day. Development and progression is only for the namesake. Each generation will engage themselves only in measuring the progress of society in economic terms but no one will ever think of stitching the garment called ‘happiness’ that will fit all human beings. Ultimately the question remains ‘What should be the solution to achieve happiness?

Measurements Glossary

evening                      – The poem begins with a reference to time. It’s evening. That means the day is approaching an end and there is an anticipation of the night which indicates that there will be a movement from light to darkness soon, entrails – internal organs
reckonings               -estimation
swelled                     – expand
Christians in Arabia – Arabia is a birthplace of, Christianity.

COMPREHENSION

Question 1.
Why does the poet say “let us go to the tailor”?
Answer:
The poet wants to go to the tailor to stitch all states together, metaphorically.

Question 2.
What is the symbolic significance of‘evening’ in this poem?
Answer:
The word evening means that it is high time to again restart the work to unify with the main land.

Question 3.
According to the poet, what should be thought later on?
Answer:
After giving the measurements, stitching can be thought of later on.

Question 4.
What has swelled considerably, according to the poet?
Answer:
Suicides have swelled in the state according to the poet.

Question 5.
What will ‘someone’ do after us?
a) start taking new measurements
b) will construct new buildings
Answer:
Someone new will again take new measurements after us.

Question 6.
When will someone stitch the to fit _____________Man?
Answer:
Garment

Question 7.
What are some of the measurements to be given?
Answer:
With NavakantaBarua, the poet of the poem ‘Measurement’ longs to be united with the nation. He wishes for happiness for humanity. No individual state or organ can survive or function independently. Keeping this in mind, he wants the leader to take the measure of the contribution of all the states and bring in the unifying element for the best functioning of a nation. For this to happen, he wants the measurement of the neck, chest, hands, arms, heart, thumb, liver, etc., to be given to the tailor and stitching can be thought of a little later. Meaning that all organs have their own contributions in the functioning of the human being as a whole.

Question 8.
Why do you think the poet asks the question – “When will someone stitch the garment to fit Man?”
Answer:
With NavakantaBarua, the poet of the poem ‘Measurement’ longs to be united with the nation. He wishes for happiness for humanity. Humanity is to be humane but the modern man is always trying to measure success, contribution, and profit. Each time if we keep giving an account of what we have and accomplished and then be eligible for the facilities, where will it end? By the time a dress gets stitched, the youngsters in the society have accomplished something better and they need a different dress. This way, when will human beings stop measuring ‘ and just gift each other happiness is the concern of the poet.

Question 9.
Measurements can be read as critiques of modernity. Substantiate
Answer:
The poet NavakantaBarua a Padma Bhushan . awardee was a vice principal of Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam. This poem, Measurements has multiple shades and portrays the spirit of nationhood in the background of reign of terror ‘ unleashed on the North-East India, especially Assam in the name of ethnic violence, communal tensions and separatist movements. The poet wants to give the measurement of the neck, chest, hands, arms and thumb. He also wants the tailor to measure the palm heart, entrails, spleen and liver. The poet continues to take count of the hormones and love, give measurements of life. All these are metaphoric for the poet wants the tailor to stitch all states together. He wants all the states that are important for the identity of a nation.

Here, the poet is analyzing the state of mind of the leaders who assess the contribution in terms of development or any aspect that is beneficial. Else, that sector can be ignored. This is the concern that the poet is showing that with the progress, the modern man fails to – recognize and consider the contributions of all in a small or big way. The states are disconnected hence the facilities too will very. One is a municipality run and the other is a cosmopolitan city. The range of segregation and separation is a concern for the poet. Considering that all states are resourceful and comparing the nation with the anatomy of the human being, the poet only is hoping and wishing for unity.

Question 10.
Analyze the significance of the term ‘measurement’ in various contexts.
Answer:
The poet NavakantaBarua a Padma Bhushan awardee was a vice principal of Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam. This poem, Measurements has multiple shades and portrays the spirit of nationhood in the background of reign of terror unleashed on the North-East India, especially Assam in the name of ethnic violence, communal tensions and separatist movements. The poet wants to give the measurement of the neck, chest, hands, arms and thumb. He also wants the tailor to measure the palm heart, entrails, spleen and liver. The poet continues to take count of the hormones and love, give measurements of life. All these are metaphoric for the poet wants the tailor to stitch all states together.

He wants all the states that are important for the identity of a nation. A nation’s identity changes with losing or adding a state. Considering that all states are resourceful and comparing the nation with the anatomy of the human being, the poet only is hoping and wishing for unity. So he means that, in some way or the other, each state is contributing in its own capacity and way which needs to be measured. That measurement will let the nation builder to unify all the states. The measurement is not only for the tailor but also for the leader of a nation to consider all states to be united to retain and maintain the identity.

JOB SKILLS

SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS

One very important question every undergraduate or a graduate has is what to do after College. One obvious option is to look for a job. Your job search will no doubt have its ups and downs. In your life after college, you need to demonstrate a sense of purpose and direction. You have to be well informed about the industry you are interested in pursuing. Once you’ve chosen your area of interest, impress your prospective employers with your skills and abilities.

So where and how do you look for a job?
Job seekers are becoming more creative and utilizing new strategies in moving their careers forward. If not campus recruitment selection, there’s always

  • Networking
  • Referrals
  • Job Bulletin Boards and Career Websites
  • Job Fairs
  • Company Websites
  • Cold Calling
  • Head Hunters and Recruitment Agencies
  • Internships

A newspaper job advertisement is not just an ad, but a well-crafted message that would help attract the right talent and best qualified candidates with the help of carefully drafted content. This allows readers to mentally tick the boxes and decide if they are fit for the position or not. While job sites like Naukri, Monster, and Indeed have become the go-to place for advertising vacancies for many companies across the country, newspapers are still an effective way to find and hire the best candidate.

It does have its disadvantages:

  • Fewer people are reading newspapers
  • The Publishing process can be slow
  • It limits the scope of applicants
  • You can only say so much in an advertisement

Sample Newspaper Job Advertisements

REQUIRES Fresh/ Experienced trained Graduate/ Post Graduate Teachers for Primary, Secondary, Higher Secondary English Medium School for Maths, Science, Sanskrit, Social Science, English, Physics & Chemistry. Apply with a recent resume within 7 days ‘ via e-mail: kumaransrecruitment@gmail.com

Wanted Executives for Digital Marketing with experience in Search Engine Optimizing on-page & off-page content. Minimum qualification should be a Diploma; Minimum Experience of 2 years. Interested can call 9999999999 or Email resumes to info@dotcom

RECRUITMENT

The process of finding and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job opening, in a timely and cost-effective manner.

What is the recruitment process?

A recruitment process is an organization-specific model of candidate sourcing for the purpose of finding and hiring new employees. Typically, the ownership of the recruitment process resides within the Human Resources function, although companies also use third-party recruiting firms. Ownership can vary depending upon the specific organizational structure of the company carrying out the process.

Email Calling for a Post

Dear Candidate
Hi
I am Rekha from Accenture. Please find the job description. If you are interested in the job profile and you think you fit the profile, I request you to revert back with your updated resume and a valid contact number.
Role: Project Management (Assistant Manager)
Location: Mumbai
Experience: 5 to 15 Years
Job Description: Experience in Digital Marketing, Online Marketing, SEO, and Campaign Management.

Responsibilities:

  • Project management skills to manage multiple projects, develop detailed project plan & produce key project deliverables.
  • Ensure quality of deliverables across a portfolio of projects
  • Delivery of interactive marketing services (e.g. website services, sampling, sweepstakes, e-mail, media, etc.) for individual interactive programs and campaigns, including ongoing maintenance and operations.

Requirements:

  • Should have good oral and written communicative skills
  • Should have good interpersonal skills and work effectively with team members, client brand managers, and third parties to understand business needs
  • Should have good knowledge of MS Office
  • Should Manage his/her day to day activities of the process
  • Should be flexible to work in the US ( 5 PM to 1:30 AM) ‘ shifts. Rekha Narayan | Recruitment | Accenture Services Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore – 560029

Calling for interviews

Interview letters are sent after the first round of the selection process in case of fresh recruits or for people with one year of experience.
For people with more experience, a direct round of face-to-face interviews is conducted without a written test. The letter must clearly mention the post for which the interview letter is sent and the date, time, and venue of the interview.

Sample

22 August 2012
Wipro Technologies
#12, Tech Park
Electronic City, Hosur Road
Bangalore

SindhuShashidhar
#2,1st Cross, 2nd Main,
Banashankari 2nd Stage,
Bangalore
Dear Candidate

We are happy to inform you that you have been selected for the second round of the recruitment process based on your performance in the written test. The second round includes an interview with our technical manager. This round will test your technical skills.

You are requested to attend this interview oh 25 August 2012 at our corporate office located at Wipro Technologies, #12, Tech Park, Electronic City, Hosur Road. The interview is scheduled at 11 AM.

Durdana Akthar
Senior HR Manager
Wipro Technologies,
Bangalore
Email:
URL:

Some of the technical/domain skills popular nowadays:

Big Data Analysis •             Analytical Skills

•             Big Data

•             Calculating

•             Compiling Statistics

•             Data Analytics

•             Data Mining

•             Database Design

•             Database Management

•             Documentation

•             Modeling

•             Modification

•             Needs Analysis

•             Quantitative Research

•             Quantitative Reports

•             Statistical Analysis

Coding and Programming •             Applications

•             Certifications

•             Coding

•             Computing

•             Configuration

•             Customer Support

•             Debugging

•             Design

•             Development

•             Hardware

•             Implementation

•             Information Technology

•             ICT (Information and

Communications Technology •            Infrastructure

•             Languages

•             Maintenance

•             Network Architecture

•             Network Security

•             Networking

•             New Technologies

•             Operating Systems

•             Systems Analysis

•             Technical Support

•             Technology

•             Testing

•             Tools

•             Training

•             Troubleshooting

 

Project Management •             Benchmarking

•             Budget Planning

•             Engineering

•             Fabrication

•             Following Specifications

•             Operations

•             Performance Review

•             Project Planning

•             Quality Assurance

•             Quality Control

•             Scheduling

•             Task Delegation

•             Task Management

 

Social Media Management & Digital Marketing •             Content Management Systems (CMS)

•             Blogging

•             Digital Photography

•             Digital Media

•             Networking

•             Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

•             Social Media Platforms (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Linkedln, Medium, etc.)

•             Web Analytics

 

Technical Writing • Automated Marketing Software

• Client Relations

• Email

• Requirements Gathering

• Research

• Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

• Technical Documentation

 

More Technical Skills •             Inf ormation Security

•             Microsoft Office Certifications

•             Video Creation

•             Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

•             Productivity Software

•             Cloud/SaaS Services

•             Database Management

•             Telecommunications

•             Human Resources Software

•             Accounting Software

•             Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software

•             Database Software

•             Query Software

•             Blueprint Design

•             Medical Billing

•             Medical Coding

•             Sonography

•             Structural Analysis

•             Artificial Intelligence (AI)

•             Mechanical Maintenance

•             Manufacturing

•             Inventory Management

•             Numeracy

•             Information Management

 

Job skills

INTERVIEW SKILLS

Speaking and listening skills are of paramount importance in our daily life. Especially, when you are a job seeker, you would be tested by your prospective employer or his representative for your ability to listen, understand and respond in an appropriate manner. Speaking should precede the profiling of the audience, understanding the audience’s requirement, availability of time, and purpose of speaking. For this purpose, listening and understanding the audience or comprehending the purpose of speaking to suit the requirements of the listener is of great importance. In the last three semesters, you have learned various skills leading to the Job Skills in the fourth semester. It is of significance that you are exposed to the acquisition of skills like presentation skills, participation in Group Discussion, and Interview skills as you would require these when you walk out of your college campus seeking a job.

INTERVIEWS:

The word interview comes from Latin and French words meaning to “see between” or “see each other”. The person who answers the questions in an interview is the interviewee and the person who conducts the interview is the interviewer.

An interview is

  • A formal meeting where people question, consult or evaluate others
  • An oral, face-to-face communication process
  • An employment interview is inevitable and needs a good deal of preparation by both the interviewer and the candidate.
  • The interviewer asks a series of questions and the panel can consist of one or a number of people.
  • The interviewer is in charge of the situation and he questions according to the context.

Why Interview:

Usually, a Group Discussion is preferred to shortlist candidates. Candidates who fulfill certain criteria would be called in for an interview after the GD. The interview can happen .with a Panel or with an individual, say the Head of the HR Department, Technical Department etc. As the name ‘interview’ suggests, the Interviewer gets to take a view of the inner-scape of the interviewee. There would be an opportunity to evaluate certain skills, like communication skills, self-esteem, domain knowledge, emotional intelligence, negotiation skills, presentation skills, felicity with the language of communication, ability to handle stress, ability to comprehend, ability to convince and also understand the candidate’s value system, beliefs and attitude to work and life.

INTERVIEWS CAN HAPPEN IN A WIDE VARIETY OF CONTEXTS:

Employment: Interviews in an employment context are typically called job interviews which describe a formal consultation for the purpose of evaluating the qualifications of the interviewee for a specific position. Interviews are seen as a useful tool in assessing qualifications. Sometimes the interviews happen in several stages. The first interview can be a screening interview followed by a more in-depth interview usually by company personnel who can ultimately hire the applicant. Technology has enabled new possibilities for interviewing; for example, video phoning technology has enabled applicants to interview for jobs despite being in different cities or countries than the interviewer.

Psychology: Psychologists use a variety of interviewing methods and techniques to try to understand and help their patients. In a psychiatric interview, a psychiatrist or psychologist, or nurse asks a battery of questions to complete what is called a psychiatric assessment.

Research: In marketing research and academic research, interviews are often used in qualitative research in which firms try to understand how consumers think. Consumer research firms sometimes use computer-assisted telephone interviewing to randomly dial phone numbers to conduct highly structured telephone interviews, with scripted questions and responses entered directly into the computer.

Journalism and other media: Typically, reporters covering a story in journalism conduct interviews over the phone and in person to gain information for subsequent publication.

Other situations: Sometimes college representatives or alumni conduct college interviews with prospective students as a way of assessing a student’s suitability while offering the student a chance to learn more about a college. Some services specialize in coaching people for interviews. Embassy officials may conduct interviews with applicants for student visas before approving their visa applications.

However, our focus in this semester is to facilitate the acquisition of interview skills by students, and hence, the focus is on job interviews.

  • What a candidate would look for: (Note: Please discuss in groups)

o A candidate may say: ‘I want a good job’, ‘I want a decent job’ one would ask ‘a well-paid job’ and some might say ‘I want a risk-free job’. Some may also say ‘I want a challenging role’.

o A candidate may seek a comfortable job. One may seek a challenging role. Another may seek a well-paid job. For some jobs should be without risks. Then what is a good job?

o Every candidate would look for a good job. What does that ‘good’ mean to you? o Candidates seek a job to suit their qualification, attitude, value system, convenience, and the ability to perform

o But it is important that one should have the aptitude and the attitude to suit a job.

  • What an employer would look for:

o If you look for a good job or good company, even the prospective employer looks for a good employee or a candidate to suit the purpose

o The organization would definitely look for people with right aptitude and attitude to suit a job. o Organizations prefer people who have technical skills and soft skills especially; people skills, emotional intelligence, ability to take risks and people with good value systems o People look for candidates who are self-motivated, have self-esteem, inter and intrapersonal skills, and other skills sets which suit the job profile

  • Why Job Interviews:

o To evaluate a candidate and his/her attitude to work o To ascertain whether the candidate seeks a good job or challenging job or a job with high profile or a mere remunerative job

o Job interviews are of significance as they allow the potential employer to assess the candidate from close quarters.

o Job interviews give an opportunity to both the prospective employer and the potential candidate to understand each other, exchange information, and understand the value system of each other, o It facilitates the evaluation of the efficiency of the candidate, skill sets, abilities, strengths, weakness, and attitude to work and people, o It facilitates the candidate to understand the requirements of the organization and his or her suitability for the job.

o It gives an opportunity to the prospective employer or his representative to evaluate the candidate’s communication skills, leadership skills, ability to coordinate, negotiation skills, body language skills, and emotional intelligence and decide whether the candidate is suitable for the profile of the job that is being offered.

  • People with the Right Skills

Recruiters and hiring managers are looking for candidates who can jump right in on the first day of work and start helping the company to achieve its goals. They try to find people with the right technical skills to perform certain desired tasks.

o Many technical skills require training and experience to master.

o Hard skills are those that can be taught in a classroom and can be defined, evaluated, and measured.

o Technical skills are the abilities and knowledge needed to perform specific tasks. They are practical, and often relate to mechanical, information technology, mathematical, or scientific tasks, o While technical skills are often most important for jobs related to information technology (IT) and other fields in the sciences, many other industries also want employees with at least some technical skills.
In addition to the technical skills that are needed in the workplace, your command of job-specific skills can help ensure you get hired or promoted. Often technical, hard, and job skills are interchangeable, but this is not always the case.

Types of Interviews:

With the demands of time, space and domains, there ‘ are many types of interviews that are being resorted to. The traditional of Panel Interviews has also accommodated other types of interviews like:

  • Screening Type Interview:

o Usually, this method of interview is conducted to screen the candidate for the further selection process.

o This can be to develop familiarity, understand the profile and suitability of the candidate at the initial level.

o This type of interview is for short-listing candidates. The questions may. be devised to get information about the candidate’s qualification, his/ her preferences, and suitability.

  • Committee/Panel Interview:

Measurements Summary Notes chapter 5 img 1

o Committee/Panel Interview offers the sheer ease of evaluation of a candidate by a group of experts from different domains.

o Within an organization, a group of experts from different departments can evaluate the suitability of a candidate to fit the job profile

o Committee Interview can draw experts from different fields like finance, marketing, communication, body language etc to evaluate the suitability of a candidate. A Committee can have coordinated efforts to evaluate a candidate, his/her ability to manage time, stress and information in an effective way.

One-to-one interview:

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes chapter 2 img 2

o to one interview is usually adopted after the first level

o one to one Interview can happen between the candidate and the HR

o It can also happen with the Technical Head, Team Head, Project Head etc It can also happen with an expert for a specific or specialized area before confirmation to the candidate.

Site Visit:

o On-Site interviews can happen in the case of domain-specific areas. Eg. In case a candidate for an engineering project being interviewed, it can happen on-site. Even certain positions like Floor Manager, certain jobs in the hospitality industry, interviews can happen

o In case of campus selections, candidates may be called for an ‘on-site’ visit-within the premises of the company

  • Group Interview:

o Group Interviews can happen for evaluating the group skills of a candidate
o Group Interviews can give an opport to evaluate the ability of a candidate for an interpersonal pen at the

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes chapter 2 img 3

location, the opportunity to the selector skills, team skills, coordination, emotional intelligence, ability to politely intervene, cooperative skills etc.
o Group Interviews are also good for the selection of a team or entire team for specific teamwork of job.

  • Lunch Interview:

o Lunch Interviews can be opted to test the personality of a candidate in a casual context

o Candidate’s comfort zone behavior can be evaluated in this type of interview

o The preparation of a candidate for such ability to maintain formal behavior and body language in spite of the informal context can be evaluated

o Ability of the candidate to order food, manage table manners, manage resources and still attend interviews can help the evaluator to draw certain conclusions.

o Lunch Interviews can also be good for certain positions which are domain-specific to see the personal manners, table manners, value, and belief systems of the candidate.

  • Telephone Interview:

o Telephone interviews can be cheap and means of conducting an interview but it can serve as a means of screening before the candidate is called for a personal interview entire a context, convenient

o Telephone interviews can evaluate the paralanguage skills of a candidate, especially a tone, tenor, pitch, throwing the voice, voice modulation, ability to convince in the absence of an opportunity to make eye contact.

o Candidates have to maintain body language, other documents as though they are attending a regular interview.

o Certain preparations and precautions necessary are:

  1. ensure time zone compliance if it is a telephone interview
  2. Avoid unnecessary phone calls during the time when the telephone interview time is fixed
  3. avoid cross-talk, interaction with other family members during the interview
  4. avoid pets and other noises intervening
  5. keep your credentials handy so to them and answer
  • Structured Interview:

o Structured Interviews are usually looked at as a screening exercise

o Structured interviews can test technical skills as well as beliefs and value system of a candidate

o It can analyze the attitude and psychology of a candidate.

  • Videoconferencing:

o Video Conferencing and video interviews provide the additional advantage of observing a candidate which is not available in telephone interviews

o Video conferencing helps both the candidate and the panel to overcome the barriers of space and time.

o All the benefits of a one video conferencing as a candidate can be seen, body files and an overseas that you can refer to and psychology of a candidate one-to-one interview are available in language can be evaluated and observing the gestures is possible but still can save time and energy for both.

o With the evolution of technology certain applications like Skype, Google Hangouts, FaceTime, etc are available as an alternative to telephone interviews.

o In the early stages of the level the hiring process, a candidate can be asked to attend a video interview and after the preliminary selection, an on-site visit can be asked for.

o Candidates can also be asked to submit a digital version of their responses to a structured interview for preliminary evaluation.

  • Portfolio Based Interviews:

o In the design / digital or communications industry it is likely that a candidate may be asked to take his/ her portfolio along or show it online.

o Updated portfolio must be carried by the candidate.

  • Preparation for an Interview

o This is the second phase of the recruitment process

o Objective of the candidate is to make a positive impression on the interviewer.

o The candidate makes an impression in the first 90 seconds of entering the room

o Remember if you want a good job, an employer needs a good employee

o In an interview, you ‘sell’ yourself. Your profile, your attitude, your value system should be projected so as to impress the prospective employer.

o Do not hesitate to market yourself, but the word of caution is that do not be pedantic or boastful

o The candidate must “know” about the job profile and the organization

o Take care of your preparation. Credentials should be systematically arranged in a convenient manner, either from the highest qualification to the lowest, technical, other certificates of value addition, etc.

o The candidate should make sure he/she has multiple copies of the marks sheets and other important papers with the required signatures

o The candidate must make sure he/she has testimonials from a former employer, principal of an institution, teacher or someone else who can speak positively about that person.

o The candidate should anticipate some possible questions like “Are you fit for this job?” or “where do you see yourself in 5 or 10 years?”

o Don’t waste too much time thinking about them in the interview.

o Often the person who looks and acts the part is often hired over someone else with high technical qualifications.

o Do not guess answers. If you need to guess, inform that ‘I am not sure of this answer, however, if you may allow me to guess…”.

o Do not hesitate to say: “ I am afraid, I do not have information about this”, “I am sorry, that I am not able to answer this question”, “ I am sorry, I am not sure about this”, etc and admit that you are not able to answer a question, instead of an awkward situation with awkward answers.

  • Conduct of the Candidate

o Dress suitably in formal attire and don’t be selfconscious

o Arrive at least 15 minutes before the time of the interview and relax

o Knock and wait to be invited inside the room

o Greet the interviewer or the board with a polite greeting

o Sit straight and don’t slouch. Don’t be arrogant by crossing your legs and don’t lean on the table.

o Don’t play with your tie, the file, your nails: it shows your nervousness

o Don’t make faces, hum or try to stall for time.

o Smile and don’t lose your temper and display maturity and a strong sense of self-esteem.

o Be honest and if you don’t know the answer, don’t lie

o Be brief and to the point

o Pay attention to the questions and respond naturally

o Be positive and show enthusiasm about the job o Talk in a positive manner about your previous employer and the job: don’t degrade or disregard them

o Don’t be too serious or very funny o And finally, thank the interviewers at the end and move out of the room with confidence. Say that it was ‘a learning experience’.

o Do not forget to seek clarifications or ask any questions, if you are given an opportunity to ask questions.

o Be confident when you negotiate for your pay package. Be very clear. Be polite when you justify your point. Ask for perks if any or seek clarification about your other ‘benefits’.

  • Q’s commonly asked by the HR in Interviews:

o Tell us about yourself o Tell me about the vision of the company o What is the quality policy of this organization? o Why do you think you are fit for this job? o What do you know about -this company? o Why should we hire you?

o What is the difference between hard work and smart work?

o Where do you see yourself 3 years from now? or Where do you see yourself in 5 years?

o How quickly do you adapt to new technology?

o What software packages are you familiar with?

o – On a scale of 1 to 10 how would you rate yourself as a leader?

o Are you open to take risks? or Do you like experimenting?

o What is your analysis of the Q2 results of this company?

COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR AND DURING AN INTERVIEW

o Communication is an integral part of the interview process.

o If you want to be hired, prepare for the interview, improve your communication skills, and do your best.

o One can have the perfect resume and credentials, but if one is unable to communicate properly during the interview, they won’t be hired.

o The communication skills include speaking and listening, interacting, reading and writing, negotiating, convincing, etc.

o The speaking and listening skills come at the top important levels of communication and the prospective employee is definitely tested on this basis.

o An employer sees how well a candidate is in terms of speaking and listening skills.

  • Hence it is essential for applicants to practice and improve their communication skills. Here are some tips to improve one’s communication skills in preparation for the interview:

o Talk slowly

  • When anxiety or nervousness takes over during an interview, one tends to lose control, resulting in speaking faster than necessary and giving poor answers. Answer questions with the right pace and a calm mind.
  • Do not make a false start. Do not fumble. Do not make use of voiced pause
  • Use the right mix of tone, tenor, pitch, and pause.
  • Make use of gestures.
  • Listen to all questions and answer one by one, in case more than one member speaks in a panel
  • Do not tend to ignore difficult questions. Do not act smart by answering simple questions and ignoring difficult ones. This is a ploy to test your honesty.
  • Make eye contact while you speak and often use ‘spanning’ in a panel interview. Look at each member for a few seconds to establish contact.

o Details

  • Seeing details in the interview process helps a lot during the conversation. By paying attention to small details, one can start a good conversation.
  • Say ‘I beg your pardon if you are not clear about the question.
  • Seek clarifications, if necessary, before you answer a question.
  • Do not be offensive. Use soft language. Do not use words that may say that you are arrogant, sexist, casteist, careless, etc.

o Assertiveness

  • Do not be afraid to assert yourself during the interview, with respect to the boundaries of an applicant and interviewer.
  • As already discussed, they may be testing your confidence level and level of assertiveness- if you are right.
  • The often-used ‘stress round’ may seek to test your assertiveness, your self-esteem, and confidence level. If you are right, say that you are right. If you have a doubt, then admit it.

o Word Usage

  • Communication involves factors like speech, body language, and vocabulary. Practicing what to say to certain expected questions will help one give a better interview.
  • Choose your words carefully. Speak to the point. Do not elaborate unless absolutely necessary.
  • It is often said: ‘brevity is the soul of wit’.

o Asking the Right Questions

  • Asking the right questions gives one control over the interview. Preparing questions in advance will help one to understand the company as well.

o Listen

  • Communication not only involves speaking; it’s also expected that you know how to listen. Listening will enable you to ask the right questions and give the right answers.
  • Do not interrupt the panel members when they speak. Do not cut short anybody. Allow them to speak and then once you are sure that the question is framed, you try to answer.
  • Even in a Group Interview, allow people to speak and wait for your turn.
  • Remember a good listener picks a lot of details necessary for a good answer.
  • For some people, listening is “waiting for their turn to talk”. However, there is a difference between hearing and listening. Hearing is a physical ability, but listening is a skill that must be learned. During an interview, hiring managers are judging your ability to both speak and listen.

 To help improve your listening skills, try out some of these tips:

  • Use non-verbal body language.

Communicate that one is paying attention by maintaining comfortable eye contact and nod when appropriate. A shifting gaze may unconsciously signal a dislike for your interviewer or the subject at hand.

  • Reaffirm understanding

After someone has communicated important information, paraphrase or summarize what they have said in your own words.

  • Don’t interrupt

Often, nervous candidates are so enthusiastic that they begin answering questions a beat or two before the interviewers finish asking them. So wait for that breath and a second of silence before answering. Be sure to nod as the interviewer speaks, too. Nods often work better than verbally agreeing with “yeahs” and “uh huhs,” which can feel like interrupting.

Sample: Dialogue Based Interview

Interviewee : May I come in?
Interviewer : Yes, You may.
Interviewee : Thank You.
Interviewer : Good Morning Sir/Madam Good Morning. Why don’t you take a seat?
Interviewee : Thank You
Interviewer : So why don’t you tell me something about yourself?
Interviewee : I am Bharath. My goal is to work in a great organization where the job is stimulating & challenging, where I get plenty of opportunities to learn and prove myself as a team and individual player, achieve measurable results and feel valued as a core part of the team. I also look for opportunities to grow and progress within the company.
Interviewer : What are your strengths and weaknesses?
Interviewee : I am a good learner, innovative. I have a positive attitude and am committed to my work. My weakness is procrastination and I am a bit selfish too.
Interviewer : What are your hobbies?
Interviewee : I like pencil sketching and playing cricket. I have played at cluster level at school and university level at college.
Interviewer : Why we should hire you?
Interviewee : I am hard working and a quick learner. I am ambitious, committed and a team player. I believe I will become an asset to the company and contribute immensely to its growth.
Interviewer : Why do you want to work with this company?
Interviewee : This Company has been a leader in its area for the last so many years and I want to be a part of its future.
Interviewer : Where do you see yourself 5 years from now?
Interviewee : Hopefully in this company as a Manager or as one of the policy makers.

Task 1

Interview for a fresher

  • Tell us about yourself
  • What are your weaknesses?
  • How would your friends/family describe you?
  • What accomplishments are you most proud of?
  • Tell us about a difficult experience you’ve had while at School; /College and how you dealt with it,
  • What do you know about our company?
  • Why did you decide to apply for a position with us?
  • Why should we consider you?

Task 2

Interview for the position of a teacher

  • Why did you decide to become a teacher?
  • What is your teaching philosophy?
  • Describe your classroom management structure.
  • How do you incorporate social-emotional learning in your lessons?
  • How do you use technology in the classroom?

Task 3

Interview for the position of an HR recruiter

  • Tell us about a time when there was a disagreement at work and how it was handled.
  • What was the best job you’ve had and why?
  • What type of projects do you enjoy working on?

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING

Question 1.
What are the different types of interviews?
Answer:
Many people getting together to discuss any topic can be called a meeting. It can be formal or informal. In a formal setup, interviews can happen for many reasons. Hence there are different types of interviews.
Screening type interviews
Committee/Panel interviews
One-to-one interview
Site visit
Group interview
Lunch interview
Telephone Interview
Structured interview
Video conferencing
Portfolio-based interview

Question 2.
Mention five points for preparing for an interview.
Answer:
Preparation needs to be made by both the interviewer and the interviewee.

  • The ambiance and the setup should be pleasing to make the candidate comfortable. The candidate must impress with descent dress and pleasing mannerisms and greet with confidence and smile.
  • Pose questions to elicit answers from the candidate and not to put him down. Candidates can say that they don’t know if they don’t know or answer with confidence. It is better than beating around the bush.
  • The candidates must avoid negative words like I am afraid, I am sorry, I don’t know – which will make the situation more awkward. Be positive and prepare well
  • Candidates should not take too much time in the answer and also not that the candidate must immediately answer. They can repeat the question and that little time they can take to think while repeating the question which does not leave a gap.
  • A candidate who seems ready to learn and play as a team member will be chosen over somebody who speaks too high about oneself.

Question 3.
What are the different avenues of look for a job?
Answer:
A qualified candidate can look for jobs in magazines, newspapers, online announcements like job bulletins boards and career websites like Linkedln; Company websites, Job fairs, Cold calling, Head hunters and recruitment agencies, Internships, referrals, etc,. The candidate can also go to the office of that specific company and leave his application and Resume with the office people.

English Summary

Mirror of Innocence Summary Notes

Mirror of Innocence Summary Notes

Mirror of Innocence About the Author

Perumal Murugan is one of the prominent writers in Indian Literature. An author, novelist and a scholar, Murugan writes novels in Tamil. He was a Professor of Tamil at Government Arts College in Namakkal. He is both a controversial and a commercially successful writer.

He has penned six novels, four collections of short stories and four anthologies of poetry. Some of his famous novels that have been translated into English are ‘Seasons of the Palm’, ‘Current Show’ and ‘Part Woman’. He brings marginal characters to the center and depicts them with a touch of humility and sympathy.

The present short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ is an extract from his collection of short stories titled ‘The Goat Thief’. In this short story, a small suger container becomes the central object of a child’s attention. Narrated in a simplistic and captivating style, the story is based on a real-life incident involving his daughter.

Mirror of Innocence Summary

The given short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ is extracted from the author Perumal Murugan’s collection of short stories titled ‘The Goat Thief’. ‘Mirror of Innocence’ narrates a story of a child, who starts crying in the middle of the night. She wants a particular thing but nobody has an idea what is it?

The story is anecdotal, based on a real-life incident in the author’s life. One night Murugan’s baby daughter was howling non-stop. His mother gave her medicinal herbs, wife tried to feed her and the writer cajoled her but to no avail. Finally his mother handed her a small sugar container which she held tightly to her heart and dozed off.

The writer wrote the short story based on this incidents to show the subjective value people assign to objects, even the lifeless ones. It is written to highlight where man’s happiness lies. It shows that people develop a fascination for even inanimate things which they hold dearly to their hearts. Any loss of such objects will cause them untold, unex-plained and inconsolable agony.

The narrator begins the story telling the reader that his two year old baby daughter would usually fell asleep around eight in the evening and sleep soundly all through the night. She had the habit of wetting the bed but didn’t wake up in-spite of being drenched throughly.

But one night the baby girl put them through an unpleasant expe-rience. The child woke up in the middle of the night and started howling for some unexplained reason.

The narrator, his mother and his wife woke up anxiously and began asking the child what was bothering her. The child’s only response was to wail inconsoleably. Her grandmother applied holy ash on her forehead and sought Lord Muruga’s blessing for the child. The grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits. She blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoon and disobeying them when told not to play outside.

The narrator suggested that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream, but the child did not respond. The child’s mother asked her if she felt thirsty or needed to go to toilet. But all the queries were ignored. The mother burst into tears seeing her child wailing uncontrolably. They assumed that see might be ill and took turns to feel her forehead. But she didn’t have any fever. They tried to pacify her with sweet words, biscuits and fruits but it failed to pacify her.

The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then her younger sister. The narrator grew annoyed and told his wife that there was no point in crying or acting worried even though he him himself was worried and tried to control his inner turmoil.

Again the mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was both-ering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrolable crying tantrum. The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out alound ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two woman to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearing with such intensity.

His wife retorted that keeping track of all the sundry things that the child played with, wasn’t the only job they had to do the whole day. Through the narrator wanted to argue with his wife he consoled himself murmuring to himself, ‘What other job do you have, then?’.

The narrator was apprehensive that the child’s continuous howling would trigger a full-fledged argument between him and his wife. He felt that every glance of exchange between him and his wife would lead to a nasty quarrel between them. The child’s wailing seemed like a relentless buzz of a fly to his ears and he assumed that this would go on till down.

But they were fortunate because, ‘the magic object surfaced in her (wife) conciousness suddenly. God himself must have desceaded on her tongue. ‘Was it uppukundaan, kannu?’ she asked’. The little girl nodded in agreement and began chanting the magic words again.

The mother beamed with pride for having been the person to solve the mystery of the unknown object that the child coveted and surprisingly it was the sugar bowl which they used in their kitchen (uppukundaan is a tamil word which means salt bowl). But the problem wasn’t over yet as they are yet to find the salt bowl and give it to the girl. The narrator was relieved as he could go back to sleep. But the problem was not yet solved. The mother explained that she had given the salt bowl to the child to play with, but she admitted that she didn’t know where the child threw it afterwards.

The narrator was irritated and wondered why his wife had given kitchen utensils to the child to play. He felt like slapping his wife on her face. His face turned red with anger at his wife’s irresponsible act which had given them a sleepless night. He angrily asked wife to look for the coveted salt bowl and give it to the child.

The grandmother started wondering where the child might have thrown the bowl. Both the grandmother and daughter-in-law started the quest diligently all around the house.

The narrator also joined the search and looked for it at all the nook and comer that he imagined it would be. He had never seen the bowl as it would be normally buried inside the suger tin. His wife give him a brief description of it – “It was made of lead. It was only as wide as one of those small earthen lamps and around five centimeters in height. There was a small fissure near the mouth”.

The child sat on the bed with a forlorn look on its face. She angrily brushed away the narrator’s hand when he tried to wipe her runny nose, but never stopped wailing.

When they couldn’t find the precious salt bowl inside the house, they ventured out of the house but to no avail. The child cried relentlessly. The father wondered how the tiny child had the energy and stamina to cry for such a long time. The mother got frustrated and twisted the child’s ears saying: ‘Why are you so stubborn? Is it the time to cry and throw tantrums?

Where have you gone and dumped the damn thing?’.

The narrator was also frustrated and didn’t reproach his wife. He felt like grabbing the child’s head and dashing it against the wall. He pacified himself thanking God that they were lucky as the child wasn’t ill. They would have had to trudge from street to street in search of a doctor who would oblige to treat the girl. They had been saved from the nerve-wraking anxiety about the child’s health.

The grandmother came to the rescue of the girl and prevented them from beating her. The narrator thought that one grew more compassionate and patient as one grew older. He wondered why the child remembered the bowl in the middle of the night. He imagined that the child might have dreamt that some thief had grabbed it from her and run off with it.

He pondered wheather God didn’t send beautiful angels to the dreams of young children. He wondered what precious thing the child might have stashed in the salt bowl, that made her yearn for it sobbing all through the night. He wondered why the beautiful angels didn’t come to their aid in their search for the coveted bowl, so that they could go back to sleep. The narrator further regreted the fact that he wasn’t a magician who could summon the angels to help them.

Their search was fruitless. They got hold of a torch and searched through all the dark comers of their house. The father felt very sleepy and was afraid that he might doze off. His wife sensed his helplessness and asked him to go back to sleep. Just then, she found the precious salt-bowl there.

She triumphantly handed over the bowl to the child saying, ‘Here is your salt bowl, ‘her voice full of pride and joy.

The family felt as if a huge burden had been lifted off their shoulders. The narrator scrutinized the bowl and found it to be an ordinary lead bowl. He wondered if even a junk dealer would buy it. The child grabbed her precious bowl as if it were made of gold and lay down and gradually sank into deep slumber.

Mirror of Innocence Glossary

  • Ordeal : very unpleasant and painful or difficult experience
  • Wail : long, high – pitched cry of pain or grief
  • Fissure : a long, narrow crack
  • Flail : move around wildly
  • Squirmed : wriggle, be embarrassed
  • Discernible : recognize or be aware of
  • Mewl : to cry weakly; whimper
  • Tantrum : an uncontrolled outburst of anger and frustration
  • Deflect : cause something to change direction
  • Trudge : walk with slow, heavy steps
  • Stash : to store or hide something
  • Cache : a hidden store of things
  • Twinge : a sudden, sharp localized pain
  • Inured : to accustom to hardship. difficulty,
  • Slumber : sleep, inactivity

Mirror of Innocence Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
How did the family members console themselves about the child’s bed wetting?
Answer:
The child had the habit of wetting the bed during the night. The family members consoled themselves by thanking the child for not waking up in the middle of the night even though she would be drenched throughly. She would lie peacefully and would not disturb their sleep.

Question 2.
What was the only response of the child to the queries of the adults?
Answer:
The child’s only response was crying uncontrollably through the night.

Question 3.
What did Paati do to silence the child?
Answer:
Paati got some holy ash and applied a little ash on the child’s forehead and sought Lord Murugan’s blessings. But the child didn’t yield.

Question 4.
According to Paati, what could be the reason for the child’s crying?
Answer:
Paati blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoons, disobeying them when told not to play outside. She felt the child might be afflicted by evil spirits.

Question 5.
Why did the adults grow anxious about the child?
Answer:
The adults grew anxious thinking that the child might be ill and took turns to feel the child’s forehead to check for fever. But she wasn’t running a temperature.

Question 6.
Why did the child’s father want to slap his wife?
Answer:
The father was annoyed at his wife for letting the child play with kitchen utensils and badly wanted to slap her.

Question 7.
The child usually played with ___________.
Answer:
a set of miniature wooden toys.

Question 8.
The reason for the child’s crying according to the father was ___________.
a) She might have seen something scary in her dream
b) She might have been sick
c) She might have been afflicted by evil spirits
Answer:
a) She might have seen something scary in her dream.

Question 9.
What made the mother’s heart swell with pride?
Answer:
The mother was the only person in the family who was able to decipher that the child wanted the salt bowl and she also was the person to find it behind the grinding stone. Hence her heart swelled with pride, having been instrumental in solving the predicament, the family had to face in the middle of the night.

Question 10.
Where did the child’s mother find the salt bowl?
Answer:
Behind the grinding stone in the kirchen.

II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words :

Question 1.
State the possible reasons for the child crying steadily?
Answer:

  1. The child’s grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits while playing outside the house during the after-noons.
  2. The child might have seen something scary in her dreams.
  3. The child might be thirsty.
  4. The child needs to go to the washroom.
  5. The child might be ill.

Question 2.
Why did Paati glance at her daughter-in-law? What does this ‘glancing’ indicate?
Answer:
Paati’s sideways glance at her daughter-in-law can be deduced as an understanding between herself and her daughter-in-law. The child being playful and stubborn, would not listen to them. Both of them could not admit to the narrator that they were careless enough to let the child play outside in the hot afternoon sun. Hence Paati gare a cautious glance at her daughter-in-law in warn her. Otherwise her son, the narrator would get angry at them for not looking after the child with care. ‘

Question 3.
What made the child’s mother burst into tears?
Answer:
The mother’s attempt to draw a response from the child failed and the crying didn’t let up seeing the child weeping with her mouth wide open, tears streaming down her cheeks, her mother burst into tears as well.

Question 4.
Describe the efforts of the adults to find out the meaning of the term ‘ip….unda’.
Answer:
The mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was bothering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrollable crying tantrum.

The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out aloud ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity.

His wife retorted that keeping track of all the sundry things that the child played with, wasn’t the only job they had to do the whole day. Through the narrator wanted argue with his wife he consoled himself murmuring to himself, ‘What other job do you have, then?’.

The narrator was apprehensive that the child’s continuous howling would trigger a full-fledged argumnt between him and his wife. He felt that every glance exchanged between him and his wife would lead to a nasty quarrel between them. The child’s wailing seemed like a relentless buzz of a fly to his ears and he assumed that this would go on till dawn.

But they were fortunate because, ‘the magic object surfaced in her (wife) consciousness suddenly. God himself must have descended on her tongue. ‘Was it uppukundaan, kannu?’ she asked’. The little girl nodded in agreement and began chanting the magic words again.

Question 5.
Narrate the father’s frustration as depicted in the story.
Answer:
The narrator was deeply asleep when the child woke up in the middle of the night and started wailing uncontrollably. He felt that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream. But the child did not respond. The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then the younger sister.

All their attempts to elicit a response from the child failed. The mother also burst into tears when she saw her child weep with her mouth wide open, tears streaming down her cheeks. Finally they were able to elicit a response from the child. The child desired an object which she referred to as ‘ip….unda’.

None of them could decipher what the object could be. The narrator was frustrated at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity. The narrator’s eyes were burning for lack of sleep.

He felt that it would take the whole night to find the salt bowl. He dreaded the thought of a sleepless night. Moreover he was annoyed at them for giving kitchen utensils to the child to play with. He dreaded the agony he had to suffer the next morning due to lack of sleep.

Question 6.
How did the mother explain the meaning of UppuKundan to the family members?
Answer:
Eventually, the mother deduced that the child desired the salt bowl which they used in the kitchen. She explained that she had given the Kundaan to the child to play with the day before and she didn’t know where she had thrown it. She translated the child’s speech for the father. Salt meant sugar. Since there was no visible distinction between salt and suger, the child had adopted salt as the single name for both. She was referring to the small bowl that was used to scoop salt – that is, sugar – as ‘UppuKundan’. (salt bowl).

Question 7.
Recount briefly the search mission carried out by the adults.
Answer:
The grandmother started wondering where the child might have thrown the bowl. Both the grandmother and daughter-in-law started the quest diligently all around the house.

The narrator also joined the search and looked for it at all the nook and comer that he imagined it would be. He had never seen the bowl as it would be normally buried inside the sugar tin. His wife gave him a brief description of it – “It was made of lead. It was only as wide as one of those small earthen lamps and around five centimeters in height. There is a small fissure near the mouth”.

The child sat on the bed with a forlorn look on its face. She angrily brushed away the narrator’s hand when he tried to wipe her runny nose, but never stopped wailing. When they couldn’t find the precious salt bowl inside the house, they ventured out of the house but to no avail. The child cried relentlessly. The father wondered how the tiny child had the energy and stamina to cry for such a long time.

The mother got frustrated and twisted the child’s ears saying: ‘Why are you so stubborn? Is it the time to cry and throw tantrums? Where have you gone and dumped the damn thing?’ The narrator was also frustrated and didn’t reproach his wife. He felt like grabbing the child’s head and dashing it against the wall.

He pacified himself thanking God that they were lucky as the child wasn’t ill. They would have had to trudge from street to street in search of a doctor who would oblige to treat the girl. They had been saved from the nerve-wracking anxiety about the child’s health.

The grandmother came to the rescue of the girl and prevented them from beating her. The narrator thought that one grew more compassionate and patient as one grew older. He wondered why the child remembered the bowl in the middle of the night. He imagined that the child might have dreamt that some thief had grabbed it from her and run off with it.

He pondered whether God didn’t send beautiful angels to the dreams of young children. He wondered what precious thing the child might have stashed in the salt bowl that made her yearn for it, sobbing all through the night. He wondered why the beautiful angels didn’t come to their aid in their search for the coveted bowl, so that they could go back to sleep. The narrator -father regretted the fact that he wasn’t a magician who could summon the angels to help them.

Their search was fruitless. They got hold of a torch and searched through all the dark comers of their house. The father felt very sleepy and was afraid that he might doze off. His wife sensed his helplessness and asked him to go back to sleep. Just then, she found the precious salt-bowl there.

She triumphantly handed over the bowl to the child saying, ‘Here is your salt bowl, ‘her voice full of pride and joy. The family felt as if a huge burden had been lifted off their shoulders.

III. Answer the following questions in 200-250 words :

Question 1.
Give a description of the tantrums thrown by the child and the efforts made by the adults to calm her down.
Answer:
In the short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ the narrator tells us that his two year old baby daughter usually fell asleep around eight in the evening and slept soundly all through the night. She had the habit of wetting the bed but didn’t wake up in-spite of being drenched thoroughly.

But one night the baby girl put them through an unpleasant experience. The child woke up in the middle of the night and started howling for some unexplained reason. The narrator, his mother and his wife woke up anxiously and began asking the child what was bothering her. The child’s only response was to wail inconsolably. Her grandmother applied holy ash on her forehead and sought Lord Muruga’s blessing for the child. The grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits. She blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoon and disobeying them when told not to play outside.

The narrator suggested that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream, but the child did not respond. The child’s mother asked her if she felt thirsty or needed to go to toilet. But all the queries were ignored. The mother burst into tears seeing her child wailing uncontrollably. They assumed that see might be ill and took turns to feel her forehead. But she didn’t have any fever. They tried to pacify her with sweet words, biscuits and fruits but it failed to pacify her.

The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then her younger sister. The narrator grew annoyed and told his wife that there was no point in crying or acting worried even though he him himself was worried and tried to control his inner turmoil.
The mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was bothering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrollable crying tantrum. The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out aloud ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity.

Question 2.
Comment on the significance of the title “Mirror of Innocence”.
Answer:
The short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ by Perumal Murugan mirror the innocence of a two year old baby girl. In the short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ the narrator tells us that his two year old baby daughter usually fell asleep around eight in the evening and sleep soundly all through the night. She had the habit of wetting the bed but didn’t wake up in-spite of being drenched thoroughly.

But one night the baby girl put them through an unpleasant experience. The child woke up in the middle of the night and started howling for some unexplained reason.

The narrator, his mother and his wife woke up anxiously and began asking the child what was bothering her. The child’s only response was to wail inconsolably. Her grandmother applied holy ash on her forehead and sought Lord Muruga’s blessing for the child. The grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits. She blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoon and disobeying them when told not to play outside.

The narrator suggested that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream, but the child did not respond. The child’s mother asked her if she felt thirsty or needed to go to toilet. But all the queries were ignored. The mother burst into tears seeing her child wailing uncontrollably. They assumed that see might be ill and took turns to feel her forehead. But she didn’t have any fever. They tried to pacify her with sweet words, biscuits and fruits but it failed to pacify her.

The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then her younger sister. The narrator grew annoyed and told his wife that there was no point in crying or acting worried even though he him himself was worried and tried to control his inner turmoil.

The mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was bothering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrollable crying tantrum.

The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out aloud ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity.

The mother had given a suger-bowl to the child to play with that night the child had woken up remembering the sugar-bowl and wailing uncontrolably for it. After long search they found the sugar- bowl in the kitchen behind the grinding stone.

After the child got the much coveted sugar bowl, she clutched it to her heart and went back to sleep. The story mirrors the innocence of the child. She cried uncontrolably for it the whole night. Being a two-year old child she could not express what she craved in words. But she was in a great agony craving for a thing, of which had no value in the real sense. It was a very small bowl made of lead, which the mother used it to scoop sugar from the tin. But to the innocent child it was priceless.

Question 3.
What picture of children and childhood do you get from story?
Answer:
The short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ by Perumal Murugan mirror the innocence of a two year old baby girl. In the short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ the narrator tells us that his two year old baby daughter usually fell asleep around eight in the evening and sleep soundly all through the night. She had the habit of wetting the bed but didn’t wake up in-spite of being drenched thoroughly.

But one night the baby girl put them through an unpleasant experience. The child woke up in the middle of the night and started howling for some unexplained reason.
The narrator, his mother and his wife woke up anxiously and began asking the child what was bothering her. The child’s only response was to wail inconsolably. Her grandmother applied holy ash on her forehead and sought Lord Muruga’s blessing for the child. The grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits. She blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoon and disobeying them when told not to play outside.

The narrator suggested that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream, but the child did not respond. The child’s mother asked her if she felt thirsty or needed to go to toilet. But all the queries were ignored. The mother burst into tears seeing her child wailing uncontrollably. They assumed that see might be ill and took turns to feel her forehead. But she didn’t have any fever. They tried to pacify her with sweet words, biscuits and fruits but it failed to pacify her.

The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then her younger sister. The narrator grew annoyed and told his wife that there was no point in crying or acting worried even though he him himself was worried and tried to control his inner turmoil.

The mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was bothering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrollable crying tantrum.

The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out aloud ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity.

The mother had given a suger-bowl to the child to play with that night the child had woken up remembering the sugar-bowl and wailing uncontrolably for it. After long search they found the sugar- bowl in the kitchen behind the grinding stone.

After the child got the much coveted sugar bowl, she clutched it to her heart and went back to sleep. The story mirrors the innocence of the child. She cried uncontrolably for it the whole night. Being a two-year old child she could not express what she craved in words. But she was in a great agony craving for a thing, of which had no value in the real sense. It was a very small bowl made of lead, which the mother used it to scoop sugar from the tin. But to the innocent child it was priceless.

Question 4.
Perumal Murugan has successfully captured the innocence of childhood in this story. Discuss.
Answer:
The short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ by Perumal Murugan mirror the innocence of a two year old baby girl. In the short story ‘Mirror of Innocence’ the narrator tells us that his two year old baby daughter usually fell asleep around eight in the evening and sleep soundly all through the night. She had the habit of wetting the bed but didn’t wake up in-spite of being drenched thoroughly.

But one night the baby girl put them through an unpleasant experience. The child woke up in the middle of the night and started howling for some unexplained reason. The narrator, his mother and his wife woke up anxiously and began asking the child what was bothering her.

The child’s only response was to wail inconsolably. Her grandmother applied holy ash on her forehead and sought Lord Muruga’s blessing for the child. The grandmother reasoned that the child might be afflicted by evil spirits. She blamed the child for wandering out of the house to play in the afternoon and disobeying them when told not to play outside.

The narrator suggested that she might have had a nightmare and asked the child if it had a bad dream, but the child did not respond. The child’s mother asked her if she felt thirsty or needed to go to toilet. But all the queries were ignored. The mother burst into tears seeing her child wailing uncontrollably. They assumed that see might be ill and took turns to feel her forehead. But she didn’t have any fever. They tried to pacify her with sweet words, biscuits and fruits but it failed to pacify her.

The little girl was too young to respond to their questions. To add to their agony their older child woke up and started crying more loudly then her younger sister. The narrator grew annoyed and told his wife that there was no point in crying or acting worried even though he him himself was worried and tried to control his inner turmoil.

The mother gently coaxed her little girl to tell her was bothering her. This time the child relaxed a little and in between sobs said “ipunda… aa….aa”. Though none of them understood what it meant they were relieved that at least she gave them a hint what she wanted. In spite of them repeatedly asking her what she wanted, her only reply to all their questions was’ ip-unda’, but she didn’t stop crying.

They assumed the child was asking for something and wondered what precious object could have woken her up in the middle of the night and induce uncontrollable crying tantrum.

The mother and grandmother recalled all the objects the child played with and tried to unravel what ‘ip-unda’ meant. They went through all the objects with which the child usually, played with repeating the names to the child but she rejected all of them with a resolute ‘hmm’ and again started crying out aloud ‘ip-unda’.

The narrator was annoyed at the ignorance of the two women to comprehend the child’s language in spite of them being with the child the whole day. He angrily asked them why they couldn’t figure out what object the child was yearning with such intensity.

The mother had given a suger-bowl to the child to play with that night the child had woken up remembering the sugar-bowl and wailing uncontrolably for it. After long search they found the sugar- bowl in the kitchen behind the grinding stone.

After the child got the much coveted sugar bowl, she clutched it to her heart and went back to sleep. The story mirrors the innocence of the child. She cried uncontrolably for it the whole night. Being a two-year old child she could not express what she craved in words. But she was in a great agony craving for a thing, of which had no value in the real sense. It was a very small bowl made of lead, which the mother used it to scoop sugar from the tin. But to the innocent child it was priceless.

Mirror of Innocence Grammar And Composition

Report Writing :

Exercises :

Question 1.
The results of a college have been very poor for the last five years. The managing committee which runs the College has asked the Principal to make a recommendatory report for improving the results. Write the report including a brief statement of the finance required.
Recommendatory Report For Improving the Results of the College.
To : The College Managing Committee.
FROM : Principal of the College. MR …………… 27 NOV 2019.
TITLE : Recommendatory Report For Improving The Results of The College
INTRODUCTION :
Report submitted to explain the reason for very poor results of the college for the last five years.
REFERENCE :
Your Order Refrence Number 369, dated 26 NOV 2019 instructing the Principal to investigate the reasons for very poor results of the college for the last five years and to submit a recommendatory report for improving the results.

METHODOLOGY:
The Principal has thoroughly investigated the reasons for the poor results of the college by conducting meetings with lecturers, student leaders, parents and students.

FINDINGS :

  • Poor attendence of students to the classes.
  • Poor care by Parents.
  • Poor montering by the Kecturs
  • Poor Library facilities.

Question 2.
You have been asked to form and head a committee to organize an inter college cultural fest as a student council member. Write an activity report after the completion of the fest.
Activity Report : Inter College Cultural Fest Objective : To Form And Head A Committee To Organize An Inter College Cultural fest.

Members Involved:

  • Prof. A. R. Swamy
  • Prof. Nagraj – Activity Head (Extra Curricular)
  • Mrs. Anuradha / Mrs. Akshatha – Faculty in-charge.
  • Sujoy – Student Council Member
  • Sampath – Cultural in-charge
  • Organising Core Committee.

Mirror of Innocence Summary Notes 1
The Student’s Council is the representative body of the students of the college, responsible for organising all sports and cultural activi-ties.

Activity : Inter College Cultural Fest 2019-2020. 26 NOV 2019.

The annual inter-college cultural festival is the most looked for-ward event of our college. This year, ‘Parivarthana’ was celebrated with the theme ‘Climate Change’. The cultural event ‘Parivarthana’ was held on 26th and 27th of November 2019.

The opening event was short play on the environmental issues faced by the world in recent times. The play was very well appreciated by all because it was presented creatively and was very effective in creating a strong awareness about environmental issues and its effect on the earth on the lives of all living being of this earth. The entire play was concieved and enacted by our college students.

The other events presented were :

Solo Dance : The participating college students competed with each other in solo dancing, which they themselves had concieved and choreographed.

Duet Dance : Various themes were presented by the participants in duet dancing which include gender discrimination, caste discrimination, sexual harassment and host of social and environmental issues. They not only were successful in show-causing their talent but also effective in sending their intended massage to the audience.
27 NOV 2019.

Drama : Social and environmental themes were show-caused in the competitive event. A comedy based on Shakespeare’s Midsummer’s Night’s Dream was presented by our college drama troupe, which regaled the audience.

Fashion show : The students of Fashion Technology along with other students of the participating colleges presented a very creative and trending fashion show.

Pop-Music : Many student groups of all participating colleges presented a foot-thumping Pop music shows.

Conclusion : The ‘Parivarthana’ 2019-20 culminated at 7.00 M 27 NOV 2019 with the chief guest giving a very appreciative and inciteful speech to the students.

The event was a huge success, co-ordinated and well managed by the organising committee.

Question 3.
Your class has been reprimanded for violating the rules. Write a report to explain circumstances of the unruly be-havior.
Report to explain circumstances of unruly behaviour in class room.
TO : The Principal, National College, Bangalore
FROM : Mrs.’ Vandana Shivraj, Lecturer in English Language, B.SC, ‘F’ Sec 27 NOV 2019
TITLE : An explanatory report to explain circumstance of unruly behaviour in classroom on 26th Nov 2019.
INTRODUCTION :
Your Order Reference Number 963, dated 26th January, instructing the Lecturer to submit a report.
METHODOLOGY:
The lecturer has thoroughly investigated into the matter and all students were questioned and written apology letters were collected from the problem students.

FINDINGS :
It was found that three male students had come drunk to the classroom and sitting behind a bench occupied by three girls and mis-behaving with them, in the interval between lectures. A heated verbal duel broke out between them with most students supporting the girls. When I entered the classroom, it was chaotic with most of them shouting at the three culprits asking them to leave the classroom. I intervened and pacified the students and sent out the three drunk students out of the classroom. It took than 15 minutes to bring normalcy in the classroom.

Conclusion and Recommendation :
Based on my investigating the behaviour of the three culprit students, they were in the habit of coming drunk to classes. I suggest that the Principal may call their parents and counsel them of their wards behaviour. It would help if the security also are involved in checking and security such students from entering the college priemises and report them to the Principal immediately to prerent further incidences of such situations

Mrs. Vandana Shivraj
Lecturer in English Language

Question 4.
MHRD has directed all the States to conduct Two-Day “Career Conclave” for graduating class in all Government colleges. Prepare a report on the possible outcome of the programme. Report on the possible outcome of two-day ‘career conclave’ to be conducted for gradu-ating class in all government colleges of all states of india under the direction of mhrd.
TO : The Secretary, Ministry of Human Resources Development.
FROM : Special Officer, Govt of India.
DATE : 1 NOV 2019.
TITLE : Report on possible outcome of two-day ‘career conclave’ in all Government colleges of all states of India.
INTRODUCTION :
The MHRD, Government of India, has proposed to conduct ‘Career Conclave’ in all government colleges of all states. The con-clave is aimed at motivating the students to dream big and choose a career as per their interest and aptitude. Career Conclave is one such event that aims to bridge the gap between career information students have with them and the world of work in real time. Career Conclave attempts to provide a plateform to the students to explore various options.

METHODOLOGY:
Career Conclave is marked by the participation of more than 100 organization in each state and in every Government college in the state. This provides wide exposure to students for opportunities in technical, higher education, vocational and skill sectors. Talks and discussion by experts from different fields about possible career paths and job market trend to help students in understanding various courses and their future prospects. Educational and Vocational Counsellors provide one to one couselling to meet the individual needs of students for a focused, well-informed career planning.

Possible Outcome of The Career Conclave
Dessemination of information and creating awareness among students about various opportunities available in the field of educa¬tion and employment will be fulfilled. Helps students to plan their careers and also explore other avenues as per their aspirations and abilites. Helps them identify role models to understand the path towards realising their dreams. Helps organisations to choose ideal canditates for organizational needs. Helps students to choose ideal organizations of their choice to seek employment. Helps to mitigate unemployment or under-employment of the youth and will also fulfill the manpower requirement in all sectors of Industries trade commerce and services.

English Summary

My Daughters Summar Notes

My Daughters Summar Notes

My Daughters About the Author

Chinua Achebe was bom in Nigeria and has written over twenty books – novels, short stories, essays and collection of poetry. Things Fall Apart, ‘Arrow of God’, ‘Anthills of Savannath’, ‘Beware’, ‘Soul Brother and Other Poems’, ‘Hopes and Impediments’, ‘Selected Essays’ and ‘Home and Exile’ are some of his well-known books.

This essay is from his acclaimed volume of autobiographical essays – The Education of British Protected Child. The essay prescribed is witty, passionately honest, powerful and personal. It throws light on the efforts of colonial writings on the native innocent minds.

My Daughters Summary

In the autobiographical essay ‘My Daughters’, Chinua Achebe recounts his parental concern for his daughters. Chinelo, the oldest daughter was only able to access the many imported, beautifully packaged, but demeaning reading books available. These books stereotyped the African as ignorant, irrational and superstitious.

On reading some these books, he was shocked at ‘the “condescension (belief of superiority) and even offensiveness’ concealed within the glamorous, colourful covers. The essay depicts Achebe’s parental and authorial intentions explicitly interrelated in their concerns: to correct wrongs; and to teach right. He attempts to analyze the tools of instructions, the correction of wrongs, of representation of truth, in the story.

In the essay, Achebe recounts another incident with his younger daughter, Nwando, where he had to tell her a story every day as part of his parental duty while taking her to school and where she would tell him a story on the journey back. This ritualistic (give and take of stories was a vital exchange of information and emotions that strengthened familial bonds between parents and children in traditional Igbo society).

Achebe writes that throughout his life he had to consider millions of differences between Nigerian culture and the arrogant and overbearing western culture that gradually seeped and conquered their Nigerian culture. Earlier if one asked a Nigerian parent “How many children do you have?” they retorted angrily “Children are not livestock”.

But lately the Nigerians have become accommodating. He himself had reconciled to answer such questions that his father ‘Would not have touched with a bargepole”, as he was unashamed to answer such questions. But Achebe rather enjoys answering them.

So he writes that he and his wife have four children, two daughters and two sons. He reveals to us that they had made many mistakes while bringing up their oldest daughter, Chinelo, but Chinelo was game (acceptable) for them. When Chinelo was four years old, she gave them a glimpse of her experience of her world. One day she declared, “I am not black, I am brown”. That shocker alerted him to pay attention to the type of books she was exposed to in nursery school. The school was run by white immigrant women.

The writer started inquiring how his daughter had formed such opinions. His enquiries led him to the ‘expensive and colourful books imported from Europe’. These books were exhibited and marketed enticingly in some supermarkets in Lagos.

The author found that the contents of those books did not offer any insights to modem civilization but upheld the superior intelligence of the white people and portrayed the native African knowledge offensively.

Achebe recounts a short story from one of those expensive children’s books. ‘A white boy is playing with his kite in a beautiful open space on a clear summer’s day. In the background are lovely houses and gardens and tree-lined avenues.

The wind is good and the little boy’s kite rises higher and higher and higher. It flies so high in the end that it gets caught under the tail of an airplane that just happens to be passing overhead at that very moment. Trailing the kite, the airplane flies on past cities and oceans and deserts.

Finally it is flying over forests and jungles. We see wild animals in the forests and we see little round huts in the clearing, an African village. For some reason, the kite untangles itself at this point and begins to fall while the airplane goes on its way. The kite falls and falls and finally comes to rest on top of a coconut tree.

The villagers rush to the scene and discuss this apparition with great fear and trembling. In the end they send for the village witch-doctor, who appears in his feathers with an entourage of drummers. He offers sacrifices and prayers and then sends his boldest man up the tree to bring down the object, which he does with appropriate reverence.

The witch doctor then leads the village in a procession from the coconut tree to the village shrine, where the supernatural object is deposited and where it is worshipped to this day’. Though Achebe found the story dramatic, he felt it demeaned local African cultural practices and knowledge.

During one of his discussions with his academic friends, his friend and poet, Christopher Oldgbo, who represented Cambridge University Press in Nigeria convinced him to write a children’s book for his company. Seeing the need and urgency of providing genuine children’s books, Achebe wrote ‘Chike and the River’ and dedicated the book to his older daughter, Chinelo and to all his nephews and nieces.

Achebe confides that he learnt from his daughter, Chinelo, that ‘parents must not assume that all they had to do for books was to find the smartest department store and pick up the most attractive looking book in stock’.

Achebe rues that parents are satisfied with the contents of those glamorous books and never try to opt for better contents reflecting their own culture and civilization. He feels that their lethargy ‘was well and truly rebuked by the poison’ (contents of children’s books), which they happily took home to their children. So Achebe thought that if he wanted a safe book for native children, it was best to write them himself.

Achebe recalls that his second daughter, Nwando, gave him a variation on Chinelo’s theme eight years later in 1972. Achebe was staying with his family in Amherst, Massachusetts to escape a stifling Biafra civil war. The author had been invited to teach at the Massachusetts University, while his wife had decided to complete her graduate studies.

They sent their older children to various Amherst schools and the youngest girl, Nwando to a nursery school which she hated to go. Achebe and his wife thought that it was probably because the child had never been away from the house. Every morning when Achebe dropped the child to school she would cry intensely and when he went back to bring her back she seemed very unhappy. The author realized that the child felt lonely at the school.

Since the author had to drive her to school and back every day, he and his little daughter came to a pact. Accordingly the child promised him that she wouldn’t cry if told her a different story everyday when he dropped her off to school and in return she would also narrate a different story on the way back home.

The author confides that this agreement taxed his stock of known and imagined stories but the child was happy. By the end of the year she was one of the popular students of the school and her little American schoolmates started to call the school ‘Nwando – Haven’ instead of its proper name ‘Wonder Haven’.

My Daughters Glossary

  • Livestock : Farm animals that are kept, raised and used for profit
  • Reciprocate : To do something for someone who has done something similar for you.
  • Strategic : relating to a general plan that is created to achieve a goal usually over a long period
  • Expatriate : Exile, Banish, to leave one’s native country to live elsewhere.
  • Condescension : The attitude or behaviour of people who believe they are more intelligent.
  • Offensive : Causing someone to feel hurt, angry or upset: Rude or insulting.
  • Apparition : A ghost or spirit of a dead person.
  • Demeaning : To lower in character, status or reputation.
  • Complacency : A feeling of being satisfied with how things are and not wanting to try to make them better.
  • Biafran Civil war : Deadly Civil war in Nigeria fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra. The war displaced many people.

My Daughters Questions And Answers

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
What has the western style done to the native culture?
Answer:
The domineering Western style has infiltrated and then invaded the native Nigerian culture.

Question 2.
Where is the difference between the cultures glaringly stark?
Answer:
The difference between the cultures is glaringly stark in children’s books imported from Europe.

Question 3.
How is the author different from his father?
Answer:
Achebe has learnt to answer questions that his father would not have touched with a bargepole.

Question 4.
Why are girls strategically important in the author’s family?
Answer:
The author had four children-two daughters and two sons, which created a lovely balance further enhanced by the symmetry of their arrivals: girl, boy, girl. Thus the girls had taken strategic positions in the family.

Question 5.
What was the name of the first daughter?
Answer:
Chinelo.

Question 6.
What did the daughter declare herself to be?
Answer:
Chinelo, the first daughter declared ‘I am not black; I am brown”.

Question 7.
Where were children’s books displayed?
Answer:
Posh super markets of Lagos.

Question 8.
The books the author found were civilising and pleasant (TRUE / FALSE)
Answer:
False.

Question 9.
As the kite flies high, it tangles itself to:
a. Another kite
b. An electric phone
c. A tree
d. Airplane
Answer:
d. Airplane

Question 10.
Where does the kite fall?
Answer:
On top of a coconut tree in an African village.

Question 11.
Who is called from the village to assess the kite / apparition?
Answer:
Village Witch doctor.

Question 12.
How is the kite taken to the village shrine? What is being done to it till date?
Answer:
It is taken in a procession from the coconut tree to the village shrine, where the supernatural object is deposited and worshiped to this day.

Question 13.
Name the children’s book the author wrote?
Answer:
Chike and the River.

Question 14.
What did the second daughter hate the most?
Answer:
She hated going to nursery school.

II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words:

Question 1.
Discuss the noticeable difference between the author and his father?
Answer:
During the times of the author’s father, people wouldn’t ask questions such as “How many children do you have?”. They would be rebuked “Children are not livestock!”. Often such questions would be ignored.

But things had changed drastically during the author’s times. People had been making concession. After concession even when the other party shows little sign of reciprocating. Achebe has learned to answer questions that his father would not have touched with a bargepole. He shamelessy admits that he enjoys answering such questions to a certain extent. He confides that he has four children, unlike his father who would like to keep such details privy

Question 2.
Was the author rocked by his first daughter’s declaration?
What did he do subsequently?
Answer:
Achebe was rocked by his first daughter Chinelo’s declaration, “I am not black, I am brown”. That shocker alerted him to pay attention to the type of books she was exposed to in nurssery school. The school was run by white immigrant women. The writer started in quiring how his daughter had formed such opinions. His enquiries led him to the ‘expensive and colourful books imported from Europe’.

The author found that the contents of these books did not offer any insights to modem civilization but upheld the superior intelligence of the white people and portrayed the native knowledge offensively. So Achebe tought that if he wanted a safe book for native children, it was best to write them himself.

Question 3.
Narrate the mean story the author found in the Children’s book.
Answer:
‘A white boy is playing with his kite in a beautiful open space on a clear summer’s day. In the background are lovely houses and gardens and tree-lined avenues. The wind is good and the little boy’s kite rises higher and higher and higher. It flies so high in the end that it gets,caught under the tail of an airplane that just happens to be passing overhead at that very moment.

Trailing the kite, the airplane flies on past cities and oceans and deserts. Finally it is flying over forests and jungles. We see wild animals in the forests and we see little round huts in the clearing, an African village. For some reason, the kite untangles itself at this point and begins to fall while the airplane goes on its way. The kite falls and falls and finally comes to rest on top of a coconut tree.

The villagers rush to the scene and discuss this apparition with great fear and trembling. In the end they send for the village witch doctor, who appears in his feathers with an entourage of drummers. He. offers sacrifices and prayers and then sends his boldest man up the tree to bring down the object, which he does with appropriate reverence. The witch doctor then leads the village in a procession from the coconut tree to the village shrine, where the supernatural object is deposited and where it is worshipped to this day’.

Question 4.
What did the author decide after reading the story in the Children’s book?
Answer:
The author found the imported books offensive. He found them to be dramatic but demeaning books available to native children. During one of his discussions with his academic friends, his friend and poet, Christopher Oldgbo, who represented Cambridge University Press in Nigeria convinced him to write a children’s book for his company. Seeing the need and urgency of providing genuine children’s books, Achebe wrote ‘Chike and the River’ and dedicated the book to his older daughter, Chinelo and to all his nephews and nieces.

Achebe confides that he learnt from his daughter, Chinelo, that ‘parents must not assume that all they had to do for books was to find the smartest department store and pick up the most attractive looking book in stock’.

Question 5.
How different was the author’s second daughter from the first?
Answer:
Achebe’s first daughter Chinelo was bold and assertive even at the age of four. His second daughter, Nawando was timid and a introvert. When she was two and a half years old, she was enrolled in a nursery school named ‘Wonderhaven’ in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. She throughly hated it. The author assumed that it was a passing problem for a child who had never left home before. She would cry miserably all the way to school. She would seem so desolate all the way back home. The author assumed she wouldn’t have said a single word to anyone all day.

Question 6.
How did the author convince Nwando to go to school without crying?
Answer:
Since the author had to drive her to school and back everyday. He dreaded the thought of hearing Nwando cry continuously all the way to school. At the end of the week they struck a bargain that solved the problem. The author had to tell her a story all the way to school if she promised not to cry when I dropped her off. Very soon she added another story all the way back. The agreement, taxed Achebe’s stock of known and fictious story collection but Nwando no longer cried on the way to school.

Question 7.
How did Wonderhaven become Nwando-haven?
Answer:
Achebe and his youngest daughter started exchanging stories on the way to the nurssery school ‘Wonderhaven’. By the year’s end she had become such a success in her school that many of her little American schoolmates had begun to call their school ‘Nwando- haven insteed of its proper name, Wonderhaven.

III. Answer the following questions in 200-250 words:

Question 1.
“Apparently harmless and innocent stories can be demeaning to an entire culture and country.” Discuss.
Answer:
The essay ‘My daughters’ is a witness to the culture shock of raising ‘brown children’ in America. The essay portrays the image of America in the world. Africa is still the object of demeaning repesentation. The telling of the story of black people had become the self-appointed responsibility of white people, and they have mostly done it to suit their own purpose.

The short children’s story which Achebe recounts in the essay is a mean story hiding behind the glamorous covers of a children’s book. It depicts a contrasting picture of the whitemans world and the blackman’s world. In the white man’s world, there are lovely houses and gardens and tree lined avenues. The black-man’s world is portrayed as forests and jungles full of wild animals.

Little round huts can be seeing in the clearings of the forests. Which obviously is an African village. The white boy’s toy – a kite becomes an object and apparition which the natives fear. The kite is brought down from the top of a coconut tree where it had come to rest. It is treated a supernatural object and taken in a procession to the village shrine and worshipped to this day.

The story is written to convey and uphold the theory that the western world is civilized and developed (The aeroplane is a portrayed as a symbol of development) and that Africa is still a dark continent with little round hats in jungle clearings. The natives are not civilized and progressive but ignorant and superstitions, as they fear and rever a kite (a boy’s toy) as a super natural being and worship it.

Hence such harmless and innocent stories can be demeaning to an entire culture and country.

Question 2.
“Parents should never fall for attractive looking, beautifully packaged imported Children’s books.” Comment.
Answer:
Yes, parents should never fall for attractive looking beautifully packaged imported children’s books. In his autobiographical essay ‘My Daughters’, Chinua Achebe recounts his parental concern for his daughters. Chinelo, the eldest daughter was only able to access the many imported, beautifully packaged, but demeaning readings available.

These books stereotyped the African as ignorant, irrational and superstitious. He read some of those books and was shocked at the belief of superiority of the white people. He found the portrayal of the black people and their culture, beliefs and tradition offensive, which were concealed within the glamorous, colourful covers of the book.

With Chinelo declaring, ‘I am not black, but brown’, Achebe learned that parents must not assume that all they had do for books was to find the smarest departmental store and pick up the most attractive-looking book in store. So he came to the conclusion that the satisfaction of the parents who felt that they had given the best story book to the child was well and truly rebuked by poisonous content in pages between the colourful covers of the book.

Question 3.
How do the simple colonial stories and narratives affect the innocent native minds?
Answer:
In the essay ‘My Daughters’, Chinua Achebe writes that he was shocked to hear his four year old eldest daughter, one day, declare, ‘I am not black, but brown’. Chinelo, was only able to access the many imported, beautifully packaged but demeaning readings available. These books stereotyped the Africa as ignorant, irrational, superstitious and uncivilized.

Influenced by the superiority of the white people and their portrayal of Africans in children’s stories, she had declared that she was not black but brown. It is a blatant disregard, disrespect and disloyality to one’s one ethnic and cultural roots. The simple colonial stories and narratives had poisoned the minds of little native children and turned them against their own roots.

My Daughters Grammar And Composition

Presentation Skills

Presentation skill is an important component in the soft skills basket. A teacher ‘presents’ during a lecture, a performer ‘presents’ during stage performance and different people make use of ‘Presentations’ to make their point, present their arguement. However presentation skill is considered extremely important in the present day context, be it for presentation, during an interview, making a business proposal or presenting an arguement to persuade someone. Presentation Skill is the most effective and enterprising skill in Communication Skills.

Every profession demands Presentation Skill. It has become an integral part in one’s career. It is inevitable and the most challenging task as the presentation is helpful for promotion, to acquire project, to persuade, to share views, to promote, etc.
It is appropriate that at this stage, as a student one must acquire this skill for successful presentation in the world of work and life in general.

Questions on Presentation

Question 1.
Name any five essential ingredients of a Presentation. Five essential ingredients of a good Presentation.
Answer:

  • Profiling the audience
  • Purpose of Presentation
  • Clarity of thought
  • Mode of Presentation
  • Visual aids

Question 2.
Why reserch, profiling the audience and conclusion important in a Presentation?
Answer:
Audience research and profiling is important because it involves identifing the audience and adapting a Presentation to their interests, levels of understanding, attitudes, and beliefs. Taking an audience- centered approach is important because a speaker’s effectiveness will be improved if the Presentation is created and delivered in an appropriate manner.

The purpose of the conclusion is to summerize the main points of the presentation and to prepare the audience for the end of the presentation.

Question 3.
What are the important traits in Para language that are necessary during a Presentation?
Answer:
Important traits in Para language:

  • Making eye contact
  • Using voice modulation, adopt appropriate tone, tenor and pitch
  • Using gesture appropriately, but only to supplement your language and reinforce ideas
  • Dressing appropriately, use formal dress and look well groomed
  • Avoiding reading from the slides.

Question 4.
Write any 3 do’s and 3 don’ts that should be kept in mind while making a Presentation.
Answer:
3 Do’s And 3 Dont’s In a Presentation –
DO’S :

  • Use pictures that suit your purpose
  • Be punctual
  • Make your slides look elegant.

DONT’S :

  • Do not block the projector
  • Do not question the audience as an answer to a question
  • Do not turn your back to the audience

English Summary

Tightrope Summary Notes

Tightrope Summary Notes

Tightrope About the Author

Kanu Acharya writes fiction on Adivasi life and has also written biographies in Gujarati. This story highlights the life of marginalized around Gujarat. His works are known for realistic values. His subtle humor and the language are the strength of his works.

Translator :
Rupalee Burke is Head of the Department of English in a college at Ahmedabad. She uses her writing / translation skills in English, Gujarati, and Hindi for cultural activism. She has a number of publications to her credit including research papers and various collections of Gujarati poetry, short stories and drama in English translation. Her Gujarati and Hindi translations of the Quebec Declaration of Literary Translation and Translators have recently been uploaded on the PEN International site.

Tightrope Summary

The short-story ‘TIGHTROPE’ is by Kanu Acharya written in Gujarati. It is translated into English by Rupalee Burke. The story highlights the life of marginalized around Gujrat. The protagonist of the story is Paba, an adivasi boy who belongs to the tribe of ‘bajania’s’ – street-performers. Though Paba is an • adivasi, we come to know that he attends to school regularly. We learn that he was a bright student.

Paba’s father and his brother Tago were street-performers. The on-looker’s would be fascinated by their performances and showed their appreciation by exclaiming “Wah bajania, what a feat”. The story begins with the teachers asking Paba, “Tell me what happens when one doesn’t take a balanced diet?” It is ironical and absurd to ask a poor adivasi boy about balanced diet, when his family can’t afford even a square meal a day.

Paba was staring at the blackboard and wondering, ‘How much to eat in one meal? Moming + Aftemoon + Evening. The writer subtly implies that Paba probably ate one meal every day – Morning+Aftemoon+Evening. He asks his class-mate a boy named Baka to tell him what cashew nuts, almonds and pistachios meant and how did one identify them. We can guess that poor Paba had not seen or eaten cashew or almonds or pistachios ever in his life nor fruits.

Paba stood up to answer the teacher’s questions about the balanced diet. He was in a pathetic situation similar to ‘the flame of an oil lamp which is near extinguishment when the wind blows’ but he managed to answer that if one doesn’t get a balanced diet he’ll end up like his mother.

The teacher was swayed by this clever answer and praised him. The teacher then asked Paba to describe the nature of his mother’s ailment. Paba told him that his mother had lost weight and is reduced to skin and bones and is seized by wracking cough, day and night.

The teacher explained that his mother suffered from vitamin deficiency and most women in India were deficient in hemoglobin. The teacher explained that to increase the hemoglobin in the blood one has to eat a balanced diet consisting of carbohydrates, fat, protein, iron, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, calcium phosphorous, zinc, magnesium, potassium, fiber etc. Paba couldn’t comprehend how one can eat so much food.

He realized that the lack of a balanced diet was the cause of his mother’s weight loss. He hurried home and narrated all that his teacher had taught him. He proudly announced to her that he had found a cure for her weight loss and that she should drink a glass of milk everyday and the calcium in the milk would makes her bones and body strong.

His mother was awed at his knowledge and proudly told him that he sounded like a doctor. Paba then urged his mother to eat roti, puri, dal, rice, vegetables and fruits to become strong again. His mother wondered if all that could only be eaten in the course of a month and certainly could not be eaten on a daily basis. The next day the teacher asked the students if they all promised to eat a balanced diet. Everyone raised their hands except Paba.

The writer ironically writes that the teacher wiped the blackboard clean and everything written about balanced diet was gone and so was Paba’s resolve to make his mother eat a balanced diet.

Paba’s friend Jatinda warned him that his mother would die prematurely if she was not fed a balanced diet. That evening Paba went to the green grocer with the intention to steal some fruits but had to return empty handed because the greengrocer had kept a watchful eye on him. After he returned home he found a banana in his new compass-box and wondered where it had come from. He felt he was walking on a -‘tightrope’. He recalled the incident where his brother, Tago had made him walk a tight rope. He had felt dizzy and had fallen down.

When he offered the banana to his mother his mother was alarmed as if she had seen a snake and asked him where he had got the banana from. He told her that he had found it in his school bag. His mother warned him “Son, if you eat what you haven’t earned blood in your body will turn to water’. He apologized and forced her to eat the banana.

Next day Janti asked Paba why he didn’t take his mother to the hospital. The narrator, Paba felt that Janti was trying to bond with him and replied harshly that he shouldn’t be bothered about his mother’s health as he wasn’t related to them. That evening Paba found a cucumber and a banana in his school-bag.

When he offered them to his mother, she was bewildered and asked him if salad grew in his bag. She suspected he was stealing them. She made him stand in front of their family deity mother Goddess Vahanavati and prayed her to forgive her son stealing fruits.

Tightrope Glossary

  • Nudge : to push with elbow
  • Menace : harmful. evil, annoy
  • Giggle : to lough for silly reasons
  • Extinguish : to put out flame
  • Recite : repeat words from memory
  • Tremble : quick short movements through fear / cold / weakness
  • Shrugged : to raise and contract
  • Bloat : swollen
  • Miffed : irritable mood
  • Filch : to steal
  • Dizzy : giddiness, foolish
  • Bewilderment : confusing
  • Hoard : supply / accumulation / preserve
  • Intimidated : fill with fear, timid
  • Growl : deep guttural sound of anger or hostility
  • Ill-gotten : to cause, generate

Tightrope Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following in one or two sentences

Question 1.
The topic discussed by teacher is _________.
Answer:
diet.

Question 2.
Who is Tago?
Answer:
Tago was Paha’s elder brother.

Question 3.
Why was Paba worried about his mother?
Answer:
Paba was worried because his mother sick and weak due to lack of proper nutrition. He was afraid his mother would die pre¬maturely. She had drastically lost weight and she couldn’t sleep at night due to nagging cough. She was all skin and bones.

Question 4.
How can the deficiency of haemoglobin be cured?
Answer:
The deficiency of haemoglobin can be cured by having a bal-anced diet rich in carbohydrates, fat, protin, iron, calcium, phospho-rous, Zinc, Magnesium, potassium, fibre etc.

Question 5.
Vahanvati is the Goddess of _________.
Answer:
banivas.

Question 6.
What did Janti tell about Paha’s sick mother?
Answer:
Janti told Paba that he should give good things to his mother to cat, otherwise she would die prematurely.

Question 7.
Why did Paba go to a grocer?
Answer:
Paba was taught in school that Bananas were full of calcium. When his class teacher had explained that lack of balanced-diet makes people weak and sick, he understood that his mother had grown weak sue to lack of proper nutrition and that it had caused the deficiency of haemoglobin in his mother. He did not have the means to buy bananas for his mother. So he went to the grocer to with the intention of stealing a banana for his mother.

Question 8.
What did Paba see in his bag on the second day?
Answer:
A cucumber and a banana.

Question 9.
How did Janti’s face look like?
Answer:
Papad.

Question 10.
What was the profession of Paba’s father?
Answer:
A bajania or street-performer.

Question 11.
Why did Paba go to Janti’s house?
Answer:
One day Janti didn’t come to play with Paba, so he went to his house to call him.

Question 12.
What did Janti fear of Paba’s mother?
Answer:
Janti feared that Paba’s mother would die prematurely and he too would have a step-mother like himself.

II. Answer the following in 80-100 words :

Question 1.
Why was it difficult for Paba to accept that the diet plan for one day?
Answer:
At school, the teacher was explaining the students about a bal-anced diet, and what would happen if one doesn’t take a balanced diet. Paba could not comprehend how one could accommodate so much food in one plate. He could make himself believe that all the food mentioned in the diet plan could be eaten on a daily basis.

Question 2.
What was the lesson taught to the children?
Answer:
The lesson taught to the children was about balanced diet. The teacher was explaining the students, what happens when one doesn’t take a balanced diet. The teacher had made a list of Catables that a person should eat in the morning, afternoon and evening.

The teacher had told the students that a wholesome diet consisted of vegetables, fruits, nuts, salads etc. He had explained which nutrient is found in which food and which disease is caused by the deficiency of which of them. He asked, Paba to tell him what happened when one doesn’t take a balanced diet.

Paba was speech-less, because he was not listening attentively to the teache. He blurted out that if one doesn’t get a balanced diet he’ll end up like his mother, who had grown weak due to malnutrition. The teacher made an example of his mother to explain the chareteristics of the diseases occuring due to Mal-nutrition. He asked Paba to describe the char-acteristics of his mothers illness. Paba told him that his mother had drastically lost weight and that she cannot sleep at night due a nag-ging cough. She had been reduced to skin and bones.

The teachers asked the class as to which dificiency leads to low blood count and weight loss and which food should be eaten to make up for it. He explained that Paba’s mother was deficient in haemoglobin, like most women in India. He told that that eating a diet rich in carbohydrates, fat Protien, iron, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, magnesium, potassium, fiber, etc.

Question 3.
Why was Paba perplexed by the diet plan explained by the teacher?
Answer:
It is ironical and absurd to ask a poor adivasi boy about bal-anced diet, when his family can’t afford even a square meal a day. Paba was staring at the blackboard and wondering, ‘How much to eat in one meal? Moming + Aftemoon + Evening. The writer subtly implies that Paba probably ate one meal every day – Morning + Afternoon + Evening. He asks his class-mate a boy named Baka to tell him what cashew nuts, almonds and pistachios meant and how did one identify them. We can guess that poor Paba had not seen or eaten cashew or almonds or pistachios ever in his life nor fruits.

Question 4.
When were Paba’s father and his brother Tago exclaimed ‘Wahbajanias’ by people?
Answer:
Paba’s father and his brother Tago were street-performers. The on-looker’s would be fascinated by their performances and showed their appreciation by exclaiming “Wah bajania, what a feat”.

Paba’s father used to rotate a plate on one finger and then pass it on to his other finger and then pass it on to his other finger. It was a wonderful sight to see the plate spinning like a top on one fingure. His father would then transfer it atop a smooth-ended wooden pole and balance it on his teeth.

Paba’s brother Tago would run on a rope then stand on the plate and slide it along the rope from one end to the other. The on-lookers would be wonderstruck. Then women shriek out in panic. The on-lookers would show their admiration and Cheered them for the fantastic feat and exclaim “Wah bajania, what a feat!”.

Question 5.
Narrate the incident of Goddess Vahanvati’s curse.
Answer:
Goddess Vahanavati was the deity of fishermen. The fisher¬men and the bajanias were originally banias but the clan divided into two groups, due to the curse of Mother Vahanavati. The story goes that once, two bania brothers went fishing in the sea. While return¬ing back with their loaded boat the sea turned stormy and they feared the boat would capsize. They prayed to Goddess Vahanavati to save their life pledging all their fishes. Goddess Vahanavati rescued them.

One of the brothers forgot his promise, but the other fulfilled it. God¬dess Vahanavati cursed them to have a life of nomads without a roof over their heads. Due to the curse they had been living like gypsies performing rope-tricks. Over the time people referred to them as ‘bajanias’.

Question 6.
Janti was beaten by Paba. Mention two reasons.
Answer:
Janti or Jatinda had the habit of teasing Paba daily. He teased Paba saying that the Vania or Bajania’s eat roasted papad and then drink water from the trough and become bloated. Paba had a grudge because Janti made fun of their poverty as they couldn’t offered even a square meal a day.

The second reason for Paba to beat Janti was that Janti was secretly slipping eatables into his school bag, daily. Paba, found this mysterious but he offered the eatables to this mother. His mother grew suspicious and thought that he was stealing the bananas and cucumbers or the lemons, that Janti had slipped into his school bag. Though he confessed that he did not know how the eatables came to be in his school bag, his mother did not believe him.

She made him stand before the idol of their clan deity Goddess Vanahavati and made him beg the Goddess forgiveness. She adviced him that if one eat’s what one hasn’t earned the blood in the body will turn to water. Paba found out the Janti was hiding eatables in his school bag. He confronted Janti and flattened his face into a Papad, in anger because he thought that Janti was trying to frame him for stealing the eatables.

Question 7.
Why did Paba call Janti’s mother ‘female viper’?
Answer:
After Paba and Janti compromised they became very good friends. They would spend their time together daily at school recess and also play together in the evening after school. One day, when Janti did not come over to play, Paba grew apprehensive and went to his house. Janti’s mother shouted at him saying, “You ill-begotten fat- so, why doesn’t the devil take you? You want to idle away all day long. You have come to tie my son’s bier (a platform on which dead body is placed before burial).

Paba was extremely saddened and hot tears trickled down his cheeks. Janti’s mother scolded her son for having become friendly with a low-caste boy. Janti hurried to him and dragged him away. He pleaded Paba not to come to his house ever again.

Paba couldn’t tolerate his anger. He asked Janti, “Is this your mother or a female viper?” Janti’s mother was dead. His father had re-married. He explains Paba that if his mother dies, he too will have a cruel step-mother like him. He reveals why he had been secretly placing eatables in Paba’s school bag. He didn’t want Paba’s mother to die of mal-nourishment. He really wanted Paba not to suffer under a step-mother like himself.

III. Answer the following in 200-250 words :

Question 1.
What is the significance of the title ‘Tightrope’? How is it used as a technique to relate in various contexts in the story?
Answer:
Paba belonged to a family of poor street-performers. His father and elder brother Tago, moved from place to place performing rope- tricks. They earned a very meagre income which was not enough to feed the family even a square meal a day. Due to lack of adequate nutrition his mother had lost weight and was reduced to mere skin and bones.

His school-mate Janti belonged to higher-caste society. He Pittied Paba for his poverty and showed his concern for Paba’s mother by secretly slipping eatables into Paba’s school bag. Janti’s mother was dead and his father had re-married. His step-mother was a vicious lady and deplored his friendship with Paba, a low- caste Bajania.

Though his mother needed the eatables that Janti slipped into Paba’s school bag, she thought that her son was stealing them to keep her healthy. She made him pledge before Goddess Vahanavathi’s idol that he would not ever steal again.

One day Paba found out that Janti was the person who had secretly slipped eatables into his school bag. He grew angry and beat Janti’s face into a Papad. Later he came to know that Janti’s mother was dead and his step-mother was a vicious women. Janti explained Paba the real reason why he had been slipping eatables into his school bag. It was because he didn’t want him to lose his mother due to mal-nutrition and save him the suffering at the hands of a step-mother.

Paba felt as if he was walking a tight-rope, one end of which was held by Janti. He closed his eyes in humiliation and shame for having accused Janti trying to frame him as a thief. He had mis-read Janti’s good intentions and was sorry for having thrashed him badly.

The various situations that Paba had to face in his young life is similar to the ‘Tightrope’ act of the street performers. One slip of the foot, they might lose their limbs or even life. The author has effectively portrayed the lives of street-performers, the social / conditions and the social discrimination they go through in the short- story.

Question 2.
How is the social situation depicted in the story?
Answer:
In the short story ‘Tightrope’, Kanu Acharya, highlights the life of marginalized people in a very realistic manner. Paba belonged to a family of poor street-performers. His father and elder brother Tago, moved from place to place performing rope-tricks. They earned a very meagre income which was not enough to feed the family even a square meal a day. Due to lack adequate nutrition his mother had lost weight and was reduced to mere skin and bones.

His school-mate Janti belonged to higher-caste society. He Pittied Paba for his poverty and showed his concern for Paba’s mother by secretly slipping eatables into Paba’s school bag. Janti’s mother was dead and his father had re – married. His step mother and was a vicious lady and deplored his friendship with Paba, a low-caste Bajania.

Though his mother needed the eatables that Janti slipped into Paba’s school bag, she thought that her son was stealing them to keep her healthy. She made him pledge before Goddess Vahanavathi’s idol that he would not steal ever again.

One day Paba found out that Janti was the person who had secretly slipped eatables into his school bag. He grew angry and beat Janti’s face into a Papad. Later he came to know that Janti’s mother was dead and his step-mother was a vicious women. Janti explained Paba the real reason why he had been slipping eatables into his school bag. It was because he didn’t want him to lose his mother due to mal-nutrition and save him the suffering at the hands of a step-mother.

Paba felt as if he was walking a tight-rope, one end of which was held by Janti. He closed his eyes in humiliation and shame for having accused Janti trying to frame him as a thief. He had mis-read Janti’s good intentions and was sorry for having thrashed him badly.

The various situations that Paba had to face in his young life is similar to the ‘Tightrope’ act of the street performers. One slip of the foot, they might lose their limbs or even life. The author has effectively portrayed the lives of street-performers, the social conditions and the social discrimination they go through in the short- story.

At school Paba learnt that only a balanced diet would keep a man healthy. He also learnt that people suffered many diseases due to tack of adequate nutrition. He understood that the lack of proper nutrition was the reason for his mother’s illness. But he was helpless, as the family had no means to have a nutritions diet. Even his best friend Janti had the daily habit of teasing him. He would say the vanias or Bajania’s would not have enough to eat. They only ate roasted papad and drink water to fill their bellies, and that is why they appear bloated.

One day, Paba intended to steal a banana for his mother, he stood before the grocer’s shop waiting for a long time for a opportunity a steal a banana. But the shopkeeper was not busy. Paba enquired about the prices of the fruits. The shopkeeper was miffed and angrily told him to go away and not to waste his time he didn’t intend to buy anything.

Question 3.
The class structure is again and again depicted through various incidents. Substantiate.
Answer:
The short story ‘Tightrope’ by Kanu Acharya begins with the teacher. It is ironical and absurd to ask a poor adivasi boy about balanced diet, when his family can’t afford even a square meal a day. Paba was staring at the blackboard and wondering, ‘How much to eat in one meal? Moming+Aftemoon+Evening. The writer subtly implies that Paba probably ate one meal every day – Moming+Aftemoon+Evening. He asks his class-mate a boy named Baka to tell him what cashew nuts, almonds and pistachios meant and how did one identify them.

We can guess that poor Paba had not seen or eaten cashew or almonds or pistachios ever in his life nor fruits. The protagonist of the story is Paba, an adivasi boy who belongs to the tribe of ‘bajania’s’ – street-performers. Though Paba is an adivasi, we come to know that he attends to school regularly. We leam that he was a bright student. Paba’s father and his brother Tago were street-performers. The on-looker’s would be fascinated by their performances and showed their appreciation by exclaiming “Wah bajania, what a feat”.

Paba’s father used to rotate a plate on one finger and then pass it on to his other finger and then pass it on to his other finger. It was a wonderful sight to see the plate spinning like a top on one finger. His father would then transfer it atop a smooth-ended wooden pole and balance it on his teeth.

Paba’s brother Tago would run on a rope then stand on the plate and slide it along the rope from one end to the other. The on-lookers would be wonders struck. The women Shierked out in panic. The on-lookers would show their admiration and eheered them for the fantastic feat and exclaim “Wah bajania, what a feat!”.

That evening Paba went to the greengrocer with the intention to steal some fruits but had to return empty handed because the greengrocer had kept a watchful eye on him. After he returned home he found a banana in his new compass-box and wondered where it had come from.

He felt he was walking on a -‘tightrope’. Janti had the habit of teasing Paba and another of his friend, Surabania. He told Surabania of the incident, Surabania offers him two rupees to flaten Janti’s face into a ‘Papad’. Paba needed the money to buy a ballpen refill and he beat up Janti. Janti’s father was an influential person and he complained to their class teacher. Paba got a severe thrashing the next day.

After the incident Janti and Paba grew apart. Paba confronted Janti and asked him if he had wanted him to be framed for stealing things. Janti pleaded him to forget about it and urged Paba to be friendly with him. After Paba and Janti compro¬mised they because very good friends. They would spend their time together daily at school recess and also play together in the evening after school.

One day, when Janti did not come over to play, Paba grew apprehensive and went to his house. Janti’s mother shouted at him saying, “You ill-begotten fat- so, why doesn’t the devil take you? You want to idle away all day long. You have come to tie my son’s bier (a platform on which dead body is placed before burial).

Paba was extremely saddened and hot tears trickled down his cheeks. Janti’s mother scolded her son for having become friendly with a low-caste boy. Janti hurried to him and dragged him away. He pleaded Paba not to come to his house ever again. Paba couldn’t tolerate his anger. He asked Janti, “Is this your mother or a female viper?”
Janti’s mother was dead. His father had re-married. He explains Paba that if his mother dies, he too will have a cruel step-mother like him. He reveals why he had been secretly placing eatables in Paba’s school bag.

He didn’t want Paba’s mother to die of mal-nourishment. He really wanted Paba not to suffer under a step-mother like himself. Paba felt as if he was walking a tight-rope, one end of which was held by Janti. He closed his eyes in humiliation and shame for having accused Janti trying to frame him as a thief. He had mis-read Janti’s good intentions and was sorry for having thrashed him badly.

The various situations that Paba had to face in his young life is similar to the ‘Tightrope’ act of the street performers. One slip of the foot, they might lose their limbs or even life. The author has effectively portrayed the lives of street-performers, the social conditions and the social discrimination they go through in the short- story.

Tightrope Grammar And Composition

Listening And Note Taking

Exercise 1.

You might have made a list of sounds like the horns of vehicles, ticking of clocks, sounds of someone coughing or sneezing, footsteps etc. These sounds were present even before you started listening to them consciously. However, you only heard them before. Now since you are consciously involved and paying attention, you have listened to them.

Now that we have a simple understanding of hearing and is tensing, let us move on to discuss why listening is important to us, especially as students. In our classrooms, lectures, discussions, etc. are important for us especially from the point of view of examinations where, very often, we are tested based on our memory. Besides understanding the concept, we also need to remember important points with regard to them.

Within such a scenario it becomes important for us to take down notes. We need to write down what is important and needs to be remembered. These notes will be our guiding source during examinations and help us clarify our doubts whenever we need by providing us with permanent records of what we listened to. Hence, taking down notes while listening to a lecture or discussion becomes extremely important.

Note taking
Note taking thus is an important step in effective studying. Studies concerned with note taking have revealed that note taking helps one to listen effectively. It has also been proved that students who study their notes remember one and a half times more after six weeks than students who do not study. The most important finding from these studies is that students who do not take down or study their notes forget approximately 80% of the lectures by the end of two weeks. Having understood the importance of note taking let us also understand that it is a skill that can be acquired and improved through practice.

To develop this skill you need to follow the following steps:
1. Be aware and prepared about the topic you are going to listen to. Read about it beforehand so that you are better prepared with the vocabulary and have a general idea of the topic.

2. Pay close attention to paralanguage the tone, pitch, pauses, stresses, intonation etc. that the speaker uses. They are important pointers to the main and key ideas in any lecture. For instance, very often when a speaker wants to stress a point, he may emphasize it by raising his voice, changing his intonation or using an appropriate gesture.

3. Be alert and look for words like, to sum up, list like first, second, finally etc. Also observe the points the speaker repeats.

4. Be smart while taking down notes. Use abbreviation, pictorial representations and do not waste time in writing down whole sentences.

5. Review your notes the same day so that you can fill in the missing details. After a few days you may miss out on important details.

List of sounds heard:

  • Horns of vehicles
  • Ticking of clocks
  • Coughing sounds
  • Sneezing
  • Footsteps
  • Sub-concious sounds that have been heard before

Exercise 2.

Ask your friend to read out the passage. Complete the notes given below after you listen or as you are listening. Isn’t interesting that each one perceives different data and in different ways. Each of us has our own preferred ways of gathering information. While some are quick to see things, some others are quick to hear things. Some learn better by reading printed text while some learn better by listening to lectures.

Individuals differ from each other in their behavior, attitude and also in the way they react to things. Similarly, they also differ in their learning styles. Depending on the way people learn, they are usually classified into three. They are visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners. Let us look at each of them in slightly greater details. Let us begin with visual learners. As the name suggests, visual learners use their sense of ‘sight’ to learn. They are learners who may think in pictures and learn best form visual displays such as graphs, charts, diagrams, and videos. Now let us look at the second category of learners.

Auditory learners, quite unlike the visual learners, they prefer to learn by listening. They learn best by listening to lectures, discussions, talks, interviews etc. They are usually best at recollecting what they have heard more than what they have seen. If you are able to follow this lecture very well and recollect the information with ease, you are a good auditory learner.

On the other hand, if you are a visual learning, you may have difficulty in listening and understanding this lecture because the lecture is not supported with any visual displays. There may be a few of you who may not benefit from this lecture as much because you have nothing to do.

you may not prefer to sit still for a long time listening to someone; instead you may prefer to be engaged in physical exploration. You may prefer to learn things by doing, touching and feeling. Such learners belong to the third category of kinesthetic learners. They learn best by experimenting and practically doing what they learn.

Now complete the notes given below:

Question 1.
3 different learning styles.
Answer:

  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Kinesthetic

Question 2.
Preferred ways of learning
Answer:

  • Visual learners prefer to learn by sense of ‘sight
  • Auditory learners prefer to learn by listening.
  • Kinesthetic learners prefer to learn by experimenting and practically.

Exercise 3.

You can safely drive your car from one place to another if you follow these steps. First, make sure that all four tyres have enough air in them. Second, settle comfortably into the driver’s seat and fasten your seatbelt snugly across hips, shoulder and chest.

Third, adjust the rear view and side view mirrors to give yourself a clear view of traffic immediately behind you and on both sides, fourth, check over both shoulders before backing out of your parking spot. A successful journey begins with the first step and if.

You begin your drive by following these steps, your journey should end well for you and for everybody else on the road.
Tightrope Summary Notes IMG 1

  • Steps To Drive Safely.
  • Check if all four tyers have enough air.
  • Settle comfortably into the driver’s sat.
  • Fasten seat belt Snugly
  • Adjust rear view and side view mirrors.
  • Check over both shoulder before backing out
  • Journey is safe by following these steps.

English Summary

The Escape Summary Notes

The Escape Summary Notes

The Escape About the Author

Narayan Shyam (1922-1989) is an exemplary Sindhi poet who pioneered Sindhi poetry and popularized it. He introduced western forms as well as classical forms like doha, ghazal, bait and vai in his poetry. 11 collections of poetry including Waria Bhario Paland have been appreciated by the reading public.

He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1970. This poem The Escape is a special tribute to the poetic talent which subtly explains the futility and needlessness of enmity and hatred. This is translated from Sindhi by Param Abhichandani.

The Escape Summary

Yes,
My foe he was!
Where did he come from?
He stood by my side And like this!
I gnashed my teeth,
Bit my lips,
And for a moment –
Ah! With saucy spearing eyes,
Into his face I looked,
And then,
Turned away my face.
Move he didn’t, however.
Peremptorily,
There he stood!
And said to me,
“One day,
When this age of animosity will face away,
And when we shall have spent the last bullet
Or even if the bullets remain
We shall not load them;
For our injured imbecile hands
Will not move to pick them
Then, we may perhaps ask –
What were we fighting for?
And we may feel helpless
To find any reason therefor.
That we were hating each other
Will lapse into a history”
He stood in expectation
To hear from me But…
I escaped –
Had I waited there any longer,
Certainly I would have embraced him.

The poem ‘Escape’ is by the contemporary poet Narayan Shyam, who writes in Sindhi. The poem is translated from Sindhi to English by Param Abhichandani.

The poem is addressed to an enemy. The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger.

He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away. The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet.

Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other. They may then be able to .realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them.

Their animosity and hatred would dissolve into peace and would lapse into history, i.e., it would be only remembered in the history books. The speaker’s enemy stood there expecting an answer but the speaker was lost for words and quietly slipped away or rather escaped from there without giving an explanation.

Later the poet admits that if he had the fearlessness to face the enemy’s jibe he would have certainly embraced him joyfully. The poem depicts the futility and needlessness of enmity and hatred.

The Escape Glossary

  • Foe : enemy
  • Gnash : to grind teeth in anger or in pain
  • Spearing : piercing, penetrating
  • Peremptorily: stubborn, commanding
  • Animosity : enmity
  • Imbecile : weak, lacking strength

The Escape Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Who is the speaker addressing?
Answer:
The speaker is addressing his enemy.

Question 2.
Mention any two expressions which denote anger and ill will.
Answer:
(a) “I gnashed my teeth,
Bit my lips,

(b) Ah! with saucy spearing eyes,
Into his face I looked

Question 3.
Who was the first to express anger between the speaker and his enemy?
Answer:
The poet-speaker was the first to express anger towards his enemy.

Question 4.
The foe was meek and timid. TRUE / FALSE
Answer:
False

Question 5.
What did the foe tell the speaker about their future status of rivalry?
Answer:
The foe told the poet that, eventually the age of animosity be-tween them will end, and the guns will go silent if they remain un-loaded with the bullets because their injured and weak hands will not make a move to pick up the bullets. In that hour of peace and solitude they might ask each other. What they were fighting each other for and feel helpless because they might not find any reasons for their animosity.

Question 6.
According to the foe, What ‘will lapse into a history’?
Answer:
‘That they were hating each other’ will lapse into history.

Question 7.
Why did the speaker escape from the scene?
Answer:
The speaker had no answers to his foe’s question, ‘What were we fighting for?’, so he escaped from the scene.

Question 8.
Is the speaker afraid to face his foe?
Answer:
The speaker was actually ashamed to face his foe.

II. Answer the following questions in 80 – 100 words:

Question 1.
Explain the opening of the poem and the expressions on the face of the speaker.
Answer:
The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger. He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away.

Question 2.
How different was the reaction of the enemy to that of the speaker’s?
Answer:
The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet. Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other.

They may then be able to realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them. Their animosity and hatred would dissolve into peace and would lapse into history, i.e., it would be only remembered in the history books.

Question 3.
What does the ending of the poem convey?
Answer:
At the end of the poem it is understood that the speaker had realized the futility and needlessness of enimity and hatred between him and his foe. But the speaker was adamant and did not want to admit that there was no reason for the needless enmity between them. Hence he could not answer his foe’s question, ‘What were we fighting for?” and like a coward unable to face his enemy, the speaker slipped away or rather escaped for him.

The speaker is overcome with joy to hear his enemy offering a truce of peace between them and feels that if he hadn’t run away from there he would have hugged his enemy joyfully for his offer of ending the animosity between them.

III. Answer the following questions in 200 – 250 words :

Question 1.
Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem. Explain.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Escape’ by poet Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem. The poem is addressed to an enemy. The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger.

He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away. The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet.

Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other. They may then be able to realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them.

overcome with joy to hear his enemy offering a truce of peace between them and feels that if he hadn’t run away from there he would have hugged his enemy joyfully for his offer of ending the animosity between them.

III. Answer the following questions in 200 – 250 words :

Question 1.
Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem. Explain.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Escape’ by poet Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem. The poem is addressed to an enemy. The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger.

He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away. The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet.

Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other. They may then be able to realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them.

Their animosity and hatred would dissolve into peace and would lapse into history, i.e., it would be only remembered in the history books. The speaker’s enemy stood there expecting an answer but the speaker was lost for words and quietly slipped away or rather escaped from there without giving an explanation.

Later the poet admits that if he had the fearlessness to face the enemy’s jibe he would have certainly embraced him joyfully. The poem depicts the futility and needlessness of enmity and hatred.

Question 2.
Human relations are being poisoned by petty moments of anger and hatred which destroy the longevity of the bonding. Explain with reference to the poem.
Answer:
It is true that human relations are being poisoned by petty moments of anger and hatred which destroy the longevity of the bonding. In the poem ‘Escape’ by poet Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem.

The poem is addressed to an enemy. The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger. He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away. The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet.

Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other. They may then be able to realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them.

Their animosity and hatred would dissolve into peace and would lapse into history, i.e., it would be only remembered in the history books. The speaker’s enemy stood there expecting an answer but the speaker was lost for words and quietly slipped away or rather escaped from there without giving an explanation.

Later the poet admits that if he had the fearlessness to face the enemy’s jibe he would have certainly embraced him joyfully. The poem depicts the futility and needlessness of enmity and hatred.

Question 3.
The biggest enemy of man is his mind and his perception of people around him. Does ‘The Escape’ endorse this statement? Substantiate.
Answer:
It has been proved that the biggest enemy of man is his mind and his preception of people around him.

It is true that human relations are being poisoned by petty moments of anger and hatred which destroy the longevity of the bonding. In the poem ‘Escape’ by poet Narayan Shyam subtly brings out the futility of animosity between two individuals or two factions in the poem.

The poem is addressed to an enemy. The speaker hates his antagonist. One day his foe comes and stands beside him. The speaker does not know from where his enemy had come. The speaker looks at him furiously with his eyes spewing piercing anger.

He gnashes his teeth and bites his lips, and then looks away. The enemy is undaunted and didn’t try to move away but stood their authoritatively and told the speaker that one day the hostility between them would end, when they shall have spent the last bullet.

Even if they still have some bullets, they will strongly resolve not to load them onto the guns, with their stupid injured hands nor make any move to pick them up. When both are at peace they would be able to discuss why they were after all fighting each other. They may then be able to realize their helplessness to find any reason for the animosity between them.

Their animosity and hatred would dissolve into peace and would lapse into history, i.e., it would be only remembered in the history books. The speaker’s enemy stood there expecting an answer but the speaker was lost for words and quietly slipped away or rather escaped from there without giving an explanation.

Later the poet admits that if he had the fearlessness to face the enemy’s jibe he would have certainly embraced him joyfully. The poem depicts the futility and needlessness of enmity and hatred.

English Summary

The Roman Image Summary Notes

The Roman Image Summary Notes

The Roman Image About the Author

Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayanaswami better know as R.K. Narayan was born on October 10 1906 in Chennai. He is one of the three leading figures of early Indian literature in English, along with Mulkraj Anand and Raja Rao. The setting for most of his stories is the fictional town of Malgudi, first introduced in ‘Swami and Friends’. In a writing career that spanned over sixty years, he received many awards and honours.

This short story taken from ‘Under the Banyan Tree’ and Other Stories is about an ambitious Talkative man. He discovers an image on the banks of the Sarayu river, supposedly a statue of the Roman Emperor Tiberius II. The story captures incidents and situations without a hint of contrivance and losing out on the elements of a story.

The Roman Image Summary

The short-story ‘The Roman Image’ is by R. K. Narayan. The main protagonist is an ambitions talkative man, an assistant to an eminent archaeologist, who is addressed as ‘Doctor’. The talkative man begins to narrate his story telling us that he was once an archaeologist’s assistant. He and the archaeologist had roamed the whole country ‘probing, exploring, and digging archaeological sites for historical antiquities. People often teased them as ‘gravediggers’. The talkative man says that he had enjoyed his occupation immensely.

He gives a vivid description of his employer, the archaeologist, simply known as Doctor. He describes him as a “superb, timeless being that lived a thousand years behind the times.” The Doctor had spent all his life digging for artifacts and discovered vital information concerning their history and about the people who made them centuries ago. The monographs (thesis) that the Doctor had written about his excavations filled several shelves in all major libraries.

The Doctor had come to Malgudi district hearing rumours that it had many undiscovered archaeological sites. He had hired the talkative , man after asking him if he knew anything about archaeological history of Malgudi. The narrator was taken aback because he really didn’t know that there were any archaeological sites in Malgudi.

The narrator felt that the proposition of him being hired by the Doctor was at stake and recollected his forgotten knowledge in history and cleverly answered that no efforts had been made to explore the . history of Malgudi but farmers had found ‘old unusual bits of pottery and metal while tilling their fields. The narrator was hired by the Doctor for a princely sum of fifty rupees per month.

The narrator had charmed the Doctor by taking anything that he found to be interesting to him after cleaning and polishing them. Many a time he conned the doctor into believing they were real historical artifacts, though they belonged to modem era.

The narrator reveals that he had once scored a hit. i.e., he had found an authentic historical antiquity. Once, the narrator and the Doctor had camped at Siral – a village about sixty miles from Malgudi. Siral was a lovely ancient town on the banks of Sarayu River, surrounded by a magnificent jungle of bamboo and teak. The Doctor and the narrator were searching for a buried city.

They were in great anticipation because if they found the lost city as it would ‘Push the earliest known civilization three centuries further back and rival Mohenjo-Daro (Indus valley civilization) for its historical antiquity. The doctor had an inexplicable feeling of rivalry with the discoverers of old cities such as Mohenjo- Daro.

While on the dig, the narrator had gone to the river for a bath in the evening after work. Earlier in the day they had found a piece of stained glass picked up in a field outside the village. The Doctor had studied the glass piece and deduced that it was a Florentine glass used in A.D.5.

He wondered how it happened to find its way into a remote village in Malgudi, because it was not usually found elsewhere in the world. He believed that if the identity of the glass-piece was established it would create a revolution in history. He had warned the narrator to be wary as they were on the brink of making a great discovery.

While the narrator was swimming in the river he dived deep inside, when his hand struck against something hard and he picked it up and came to the surface. It was an image and he excitedly took it to the Doctor. The Doctor examined it and joyfully told the narrator that the image gave them an entirely new set of possibilities.
The Doctor examined the image.

It was made of stone and was about a foot high. As it was submerged under water for a many years it appeared to have been polished. There were a few details of ornament and drapery. He declared that it was a Roman statue and wondered how it found its way to Malgudi and decided to investigate it thoroughly.

In the next couple of months their discovery was published in important papers and periodicals in the world. The discovery was discussed all over the archaeological fraternity, and was finally decided that the image was that of Roman Emperor Tiberius II. (Constantine was an Eastern Roman emperor from 574 to 582) The Doctor had also consulted Roman texts which also mentioned Roman links with South-India.

The Doctor and his assistant went around India giving lectures on the Roman image. The talkative man accompanied the Doctor to Madras and began to write a monograph on the Roman image, which was supposed to be a monumental work on history.

The narrator was proud that his name would also be mentioned as a co-author of the volume. The Doctor had entrusted the research work to the narrator and had gone to North-India to finish an incomplete archaeological work.

The narrator had diligently conducted in-depth research sitting in a large library. Gradually he became a recognized personality in learned societies. Many people came to consult him on the recent discovery. His name and his research work were reported in the Media – “Monograph on which he has been working for months now will be ready for the publication in ten days.

It is expected that this is going to make the richest contribution to Indian history. The narrator had worked hard for months and work-weary. The Doctor suggested that he could take three months off from work and relax in any hill-station he pleased to go.

As it is, the narrator had to visit Siral once again, to obtain measurements of the area where he had found the Roman image. While he was working on it, a stranger came and started talking to him. The narrator told him about the Roman image and about the research he had been conducting on it.

The stranger listened to the narrator rather skeptically and wanted to know if the narrator thought that the image was really from Rome. The narrator told the stranger that he was quite sure that the image was definitely from Rome.

The stranger appeared puzzled and told the narrator that if the narrator was sure that the image was found in the river, he could tell him something about it. The stranger asked the narrator if the image he had found was without nose or arm. When the narrator confirmed it, the stranger asked the narrator to follow him and took him through the jungle to a temple in a little village a mile away.

When they stood in front of the temple, the stranger told the narrator that the image he had found in the river belonged to the temple. The stranger and the narrator entered the temple. The temple was dedicated to Goddess Mari. On one side of the sanctum doorway was the image of a dwarapalaka (divine sentry). The stranger pointed to it and told the narrator that the image he had found formed a pair with it.

The narrator was seized by doubt and he examined the dwarapalaka by the flickering light of a wick lamp and found that it exactly resembled the one he had found in the river.

The stranger told the narrator that the image he had found was made by a sculptor from the stone quarried from a hillock beside the village. The stone from that hillock was used to make sculptures which were famous all over the world. The stranger had got the pair of sculptures made for fifty rupees.

The narrator grew sad on hearing this. All his hopes of world renown were dashed. He asked the stranger how the broken image had made it to the river. The stranger narrated the strange story of a delusional priest of the Mari temple.

This priest had inherited the right to perform puja at the temple but he was a drunkard, but he performed all the pujas diligently. Everything was all-right until the pair of dwarapalakas was installed. The priest believed that the dwarapalakas kept a watch over him all the time. He grew paranoid.

His delusion went to such heights that he felt the dwarapalakas butt or kick him. He showed bruises and scratches as evidence to the village elders. To escape from being kicked he armed himself with a mallet (wooden hammer) and retorted whenever he was butted or kicked.

In course of time he had broken a nose, an arm and ear of one of the dwarapalakas. One day, he had furiously knocked the dwarapalaka on the left from its pedestal and carried it down to the river and threw it into its deep waters. The next day, he claimed that he had seen the dwarapalaka walk off to the river and plunge into the water.

The villagers took the priest to court. He was fined and dismissed. The narrator sadly tells us that when he went back to Madars he was a different man. When he told the story to the Doctor, he was furious and exclaimed in sorrow, “we have made ourselves mighty fools before the whole world’.

He asked the narrator to bum the manuscripts and to throw the sculpture into the river where it was first found. But the narrator took it to the beach and threw it into the sea. Later the newspapers reported, “The Manuscript on which Doctor and his assistant were engaged has been destroyed, and the work will be suspended’.

The doctor paid the narrator two months’ salary and went away to his country. The story depicts opportunity, fame, honesty, enthusiasm, reputation, appearance and change. The Doctor and the narrator would have earned greatness. But the unexpected turn of the events destroyed their hopes. Their efforts had been a waste of time, energy and other resources. The narrator had believed that the Roman image would change his life until he had heard the truth about it.

The Roman Image Glossary

  • Archaeology : Study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains
  • Antiquity : relics of monuments of ancient time
  • Dak bungalow: guest house
  • Dwarapalaka : figures of gods placed at the entrance of a temple
  • Monograph : specialist work of writing on a subject
  • Mohenjadaro : an ancient city in Indus Valley Civilization
  • Manuscript : written in hand
  • Hamlet : small village
  • Mallet : hammer
  • Butt : blow
  • Epigraphy : study of inscriptions

The Roman Image Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each:

Question 1.
How does the Talkative Man re-invent himself?
Answer:
The talkative man re-invents himself by convincing an archae-ologist to hire him as his assistant.

Question 2.
By what other name are archaeologists called?
Answer:
Grave diggers.

Question 3.
What was the duo’s first discovery?
Answer:
A piece of stained glass supposed to be Florentian, which went out of Vogue in A:D. 5.

Question 4.
What did the Talkative Man find in the river?
Answer:
The talkative man found a disfigured stone sculpture in river Sarayu. The Doctor deduced it to be the Image of Roman Emperor Tiberius II.

Question 5.
How did the Talkative Man become popular after finding the statue?
Answer:
The doctor insisted upon giving the talkative man his due share of fame. He came to be looked upon as a sort of saviour of Indian history.

Question 6.
Why did the rustic ask the Talkative Man to follow him to the shrine?
Answer:
The rustic had recognised the statue that the talkative man had found, belonged to the Mari temple in the village. It was one of the pair of dwarapalakas. The temple priest had disfigured the statue and thrown it into the river. The rustic wanted to prove the narrator that the statue didn’t belong to Rome. So he asked the talkative man to follow him to the temple.

Question 7.
What did the doctor suggest to the Talkative Man about the image at the end of the story?
Answer:
The Doctor suggested the talkative man to drown the statue as it was first found in water.

II. Answer the following questions in a short paragraph each:

Question 1.
What were the doctor’s tall claims?
Answer:
The Doctor examined the statue and joyfully declared that it entirely set new possibilities and claimed that it was the statue of Roman Emperor Tiberius II. He decided to probe into the mystery of the statue’s appearance in Malgudi. He claimed that the discovery would give an entirely new turn to Indian history.

Question 2.
Why was the rustic’s information about the image convincing?
Answer:
The rustic’s information was convincing because he took the talkative man to a Mari shrine in the village and showed him the twin of the statue, which was actually the dwarapalaka placed at the door way of sanctum of Goddess Mari.

The narrator also examined the other statue in the temple and was convinced that it was indeed the twin of the statue he had found in the river, but was not disfigured. The rustic revals to the talkative man the tale of a temple priest who was a drunkard and convinces that his information is true.

Question 3.
The Talkative Man was looking for fame, position and money. Did he succeed?
Answer:
The Talkative Man was looking for fame, position and money, but in the end he failed to achieve any of those. When he realized the statue was a dwarapalaka of a Mari temple in a village called Siral in Malgudi district. His efforts were not entirely wasted as he achieved fame and earned a little money, although for a short while.

Question 4.
Contrast the characters of the Doctor, the Talkative Man and the rustic.
Answer:
Doctor : The Doctor in ‘The Roman Image’ is a nameless archaeologist. He is not given an identity other than that of an amus-ing archaeologist. The archaeological profession is called that of ‘grave diggers’. The archaeologist found Malgudi ‘eminetly diggable’.

It is as though he is launched on the exercise of discovering a buried city under the mound of earth of the village of Siral in Malgudi district with a zeal for pushing the earliest known civilization three centuries antiquity. He is a rival to the discoverers of Mohenjodaro.

The archaeologist identifies the statue found by the Talkative Man in the river Sarayu as that of Roman Emperor Tiberius II. The Doctor who is pompous advertises his finding all over the world, even though the image isn’t remotely connected to the Roman empire.

The Doctor is eccentric and he falsely claims that it is the statue of Roman Emperor Tiberius II. At the end of the story the archaeologist learns that he had been made a fool by the rustic’s tale and by his own visions of grandeur.

One is not able to Judge how a master and recognized archaeologist who had tom up the earth in almost all parts of India, who had brought to light very valuable information concerning the history and outlook of people of remote centuries had misjudged the origins of the statue.

When the archaeologist finally leams about the origins of the statue he surreptitiously destroys all the research papers and asks the talkative man to drown the statue in the river, where it originally belonged to, and suspends the research about the statue.

Talkative Man : The central figure of ‘The Roman Image’ is the Talkative Man, a story of archaeology and discovery where his becomes the assistant of an archaeologist. He works hard to gain he’s trust and later discovers the Roman Image , which may change the entire Indian history. He is ambitions and aims to gain fame and wealth. The discovery of the Roman Image brings him fame. He gives, interviews, becomes famous and is about to publish a mono-graph.

But by a twist of fate, the events take a surprising turn where the entire narrative tumbles on its head, when he finds out that the Roman Image is actually a broken dwarapalaka of a local Mari temple, which was mutilated by the hallucinating priest and drowned in river Sarayu.

Although the Talkative Man could have kept the truth about the Roman Image a secret and’ achieved fame and fortune, he was honest and revealed the truth of the origins of the statue to the archaeologist. Thus the Talkative Man’s budding carrer as an archaeologist was nipped in the bud and his dreams of achieving name and fame remained a dream. He had to be satisfied being in the limelight for a short while.

Though the talkative man was ignorant of the history of Malgudi or world history he worked tirelessly and enthiusiastically on his researches about the Roman statue.

Rustic : The Rustic belonged to the village of Siral in Malgudi district. He was a simple unassuming villager. The narrator and the villager met near river Sarayu when the Talkative man had gone there for further research about the Roman statue. When the rustic heard everything the narrator told him about the Roman statue he appeared skeptical about the origins of the statue.

So he took the narrator to the Mari temple to prove the origins of the statue. He narrated the whole story about how the statue found it way into the depths of the Sarayu river. The rustic was guileless, god-fearing and generous yet a man of morals. He was unware of the exact spot in river Sarayu where the priest had thrown the statue.

Question 5.
Why was the image disfigured by the priest?
Answer:
The priest was a drunkard. When the twin statues of the dwarapalakas were added to the Mari temple the priest got a queer notion in his head. He became delusional. He imagined that the two doorkeepers constantly harried him in the neck. Sometimes he imagined that they were watching him. His delusion grew to such an extent that he imagined that they butted him and kicked him and pulled his hair.

He was afraid to take his eyes of the idols. If he had his eye on one idol the other knocked him from behind. He carried a mallet with him and whenever he got a knock he returned the blow, sometimes he hit the idol on its nose or arm and at other times on the ear and disfigured the idols. One day he knocked the left dwarapalaka from its pedestal and took it the river and drowned it.

III. Answer the following questions in a page each:

Question 1.
“This is easily the most important piece of work which has come under my notice”. Comment on the master’s work.
Answer:
The master was a famous archaeologist called Doctor something or other. He was a superb, timeless being, who lived a thousand years behind the times, and who wanted neither food nor roof nor riches if only he was allowed to gaze on undisturbed at an old coin or chip of a burial urn. He had tom up the earth in almost all parts of India and had brought to light very valuable information concerning the history and outlook of people of remote centuries.

His monographs on each of his excavations filled several shelves in all important libraries. When the narrator first met him he was sitting on the floor with the craziest collection of articles in front of him – pots and beads and useless coins and palm leaves, all of them rusty and decaying. He examined over the articles with a magnifying glass and made notes.

The archaeologist had come to Malgudi to excavate for historical evidences. One day, the narrator and the Doctor had been scouting the surroundings of the Siral village for a mound undei whicu was supposed to be a buried city. If they ever found the buried city, the discovery was going to push the earliest known civilization three centuries further back and rival Mohenjodaro in antiquity. The doctor had an inexplicable feeling of rivalry with the discoverers of Mohenjodaro.

They had found a piece of stained glass in a field outside die village. The Doctor had examined the glass piece for a whole day and then declared that it was easily the most important piece of work which had come under his notice and that it was a piece of Florentian glass which went out of Vogue in A.D.

The Doctor had pondered on it and wondered how it happened to found in a remote village in India because it was not found anywhere else in the world. He declared that if the identity of the glass piece was established, it would revolutionize people’s knowledge of history. He warned the Talkative man to be wary and not to overlook the slightest evidence as he believed that they were on the eve of greatest discoveries.

During their stint at the village, the Talkative man had discovered a disfigured stone statue in the depths of the Sarayu river. After the Doctor had examined the statue the whole night and declared that it was a Roman statue. He decided to investigate and find evidence of its appearence in a remote village in India.

In the next two months most important archaeological journals all over the world had published details of the discovery. And after many discussion it was finally decided that the statue was that of Roman Emperor Tiberius II.

The archaeologist had entrusted the research work regarding the statue to the Talkative Man. But fate had other plans. One of the villager’s of Siral hold the truth about the stone statue. He disclosed that the stone statue was the Dwarapalaka – body-guard of deity Mari and belonged to the local Mari temple.

The archaeologist was furious to know the truth. He admitted that he had made himself a fool before whole world. So to retain his reputation intact he asked the Talkative Man to drown the statue and announced to the world that the manuscript on which he and his assistant were engaged had been destroyed, and the work will be suspended.

Question 2.
How does the Talkative Man’s description of himself, his master and Malgudi engross the reader?
Answer:
Talkative Man : The Talkative Man is an invention of the writer R. K. Narayan. The story ‘The Roman Image’ is narrated by the Talkative Man. The story is narrated as a satire. It satarizes the research activities related to archaeology. The Talkative Man of Malgudi talks about his experience of working with an archaeologist and how he was on the verge of getting name and fame but destiny had some other comedy in mind.

The Talkative Man tells us that he was once an archaeologist’s assistant and wandered up and down the country probing; exploring and digging, in search of antiquities. He found that archaeology was an interesting occupation, although cynics sometimes called his em-ployer, the doctor and him as ‘grave-digger’. The Talkative Man says that he had enjoyed his work immensely.

The narrator was desperate. He wanted to become famous and also rich. As soon as he had heard that a famous archaeologist had camped in Malgudi and needed an assistant, he ran to him.

He describes the archaeologist as a superb, timeless being who lived thousand years behind the times. He would always be engrossed in historical artefacts and wanted neither food nor roof nor riches. This archaeologist had tom up the earth in a almost all parts of India to gather historical evidences. The narrator exaggerates that the monographs written by the Doctor would fill up a large library.

The description of his first meeting with the archaeologist is quite amusing. He says that the archaeologist was sitting on the floor with some craziest collection of articles in front of him such as pots, beads and useless coins and palm leaves, all of the rusty and decaying.

The Doctor was examining the articles through a magnifying glass and making notes. He had hired the talkative man after asking him if he knew anything about archaeological history of Malgudi. The narrator was taken aback because he really didn’t know that there were any archaeological sites in Malgudi.

The narrator felt that the proposition of him being hired by the Doctor was at stake and recollected his forgotten knowledge in history and cleverly answered that no efforts had been made to explore the history of Malgudi but farmers had found ‘old unusual bits of pottery and metal while tilling then- fields. The narrator was hired by the Doctor for a princely sum of fifty rupees per month.

The narrator had charmed the Doctor by taking anything that he found to be interesting to him after cleaning and polishing them. Many a time he conned the doctor into believing they were real historical artifacts, though they belonged to modem era.

The narrator reveals that he had once scored a hit. i.e., he had found an authentic historical antiquity. Once, the narrator and the Doctor had camped at Siral – a village about sixty miles from Malgudi. Siral was a lovely ancient town on the banks of Sarayu River, surrounded by a magnificent jungle of bamboo and teak. The Doctor and the narrator were searching for a buried city.

They were in great anticipation because if they found the lost city as it would ‘Push the earliest known civilization three centuries further back and rival Mohenjo-Daro (Indus valley civilization) for its historical antiquity. The doctor had an inexplicable feeling of rivalry with the discoverers of old cities such as Mohenjo-Daro.

While on the dig, the narrator had gone to the river for a bath in the evening after work. Earlier in the day they had found a piece of stained glass picked up in a field outside the village. The Doctor had studied the glass piece and deduced that it was a Florentine glass used in A.D.5.

He wondered how it happened to find its way into a remote village in Malgudi, because it was not usually found elsewhere in the world. He believed that if the identity of the glass-piece was established it would create a revolution in history. He had warned the narrator to be wary as they were on the brink of making a great discovery.

While the narrator was swimming in the river he dived deep inside, when his hand struck against something hard and he picked it up and came to the surface. It was an image and he excitedly took it to the Doctor. The Doctor examined it and joyfully told the narrator that the image gave them an entirely new set of possibilities.

The Doctor examined the image. It was made of stone and was about a foot high. As it was submerged under water for a many years it appeared to have been polished. There were a few details of ornament and drapery. He declared that it was a Roman statue and wondered how it found its way to Malgudi and decided to investigate it thoroughly.

In the next couple of months their discovery was published in important papers and periodicals in the world. The discovery was discussed all over the archaeological fraternity, and was finally decided that the image was that of Roman Emperor Tiberius II. (Constantine was an Eastern Roman emperor from 574 to 582) The Doctor had also consulted Roman texts which also mentioned Roman links with South-India.

The Doctor and his assistant went around India giving lectures on the Roman image. The talkative man accompanied the Doctor to Madras and began to write a monograph on the Roman image, which was supposed to be a monumental work on history. The narrator was proud that his name would also be mentioned as a co-author of the volume. The Doctor had entrusted the research work to the narrator and had gone to North-India to finish an incomplete archaeological work.

The narrator had diligently conducted in-depth research sitting in a large library. Gradually he became a recognized personality in learned societies. Many people came to consult him on the recent discovery. His name and his research work were reported in the Media – “Monograph on which has been working for months now will be ready for the publication in ten days.

It is expected that this is going to make the richest contribution to Indian history. The narrator had worked hard for months and work-weary. The Doctor suggested that he could take three months off from work and relax in any hill-station he pleased to go.

As it is, the narrator had to visit Siral once again, to obtain measurements of the area where he had found the Roman image. While he was working on it, a stranger came and started talking to him. The narrator told him about the Roman image and about the research he had been conducting on it.

The stranger listened to the narrator rather skeptically and wanted to know if the narrator thought that the image was really from Rome. The narrator told the stranger that he was quite sure that the image was definitely from Rome.

The stranger appeared puzzled and told the narrator that if the narrator was sure that the image was found in the river, he could tell him something about it. The stranger asked the narrator if the image he had found was without nose or arm. When the narrator confirmed it, the stranger asked the narrator to follow him and took him through the jungle to a temple in a little village a mile away.

When they stood in front of the temple, the stranger told the narrator that the image he had found in the river belonged to the temple. The stranger and the narrator entered the temple. The temple was dedicated to Goddess Mari. On one side of the sanctum doorway was the image of a dwarapalaka (divine sentry). The stranger pointed to it and told the narrator that the image he had found formed a pair with it.

The narrator was seized by doubt and he examined the dwarapalaka by the flickering light of a wick lamp and found that it exactly resembled the one he had found in the river. The stranger told the narrator that the image he had found was made by a sculptor from the stone quarried from a hillock beside the village.

The stone from that hillock was used to make sculptures which were famous all over the world. The stranger had got the pair of sculptures made for fifty rupees. The narrator grew sad on hearing this.

All his hopes of world renown were dashed. He asked the stranger how the broken image had made it to the river. The stranger narrated the strange story of a delusional priest of the Mari temple. This priest had inherited the right to perform puja at the temple but he was a drunkard, but he performed all the pujas diligently.

Everything was all-right until the pair of dwarapalakas was installed. The priest believed that the dwarapalakas kept a watch over him all the time. He grew paranoid. His delusion went to such heights that he felt the dwarapalakas butt or kick him.

He showed bruises and scratches as evidence to the village elders. To escape from being kicked he armed himself with a mallet (wooden hammer) and retorted whenever he was butted or kicked. In course of time he had broken a nose, an arm and ear of one of the dwarapalakas.

One day, he had furiously knocked the dwarapalaka on the left from its pedestal and carried it down to the river and threw it into its deep waters. The next day, he claimed that he had seen the dwarapalaka walk off to the river and plunge into the water.

The villagers took the priest to court. He was fined and dismissed. The narrator sadly tells us that when he went back to Madars he was a different man. When he told the story to the Doctor, he was furious and exclaimed in sorrow, “we have made ourselves mighty fools before the whole world’.

He asked the narrator to burn the manuscripts and to throw the sculpture into the river where it was first found. But the narrator took it to the beach and threw it into the sea. Later the newspapers reported, “The Manuscript on which Doctor and his assistant were engaged has been destroyed, and the work will be suspended’.

The doctor paid the narrator two months’ salary and went away to his country.

Question 3.
Discuss how the story blends reality with elements of fantasy and the supernatural.
Answer:
‘The Roman Image’ by R. K. Narayan blends reality with elements of fantasy and the supernatural is a skilful manner.

The episode in which the Talkative Man and the Archaeologist scout for ancient archaeological sites in a village named Siral, an historical place appears realistic. They were scouting for a mound under which was supposed to be a buried city. The discovery would push the earliest known civilization three centuries father back and rival Mohenjodaro in antiquity.

There they find piece of stained glass. After studying the piece of glass, the archaeologist deduces that it was a Florention which was in vogue in A.D.S. But the question was how it came to be found in a remote village in India because it was not found anywhere else in the world. This episode is intriquing and fantastical. If the identity of the glass piece was established it would revolutionize the knowledge of history.

While they were staying in Siral, the narrator had gone to the river have a swim. Being a good diver he planged to the story depths of river Sarayu. He found a disfigured stone image. He brought it to the archaeologist. After examining it thoroughly the archaeologist declared that it was the image of Roman Emperor Tiberius II.

The narrator and the arcaeologist became world famous after the discovery. But unfortunately the truth was that the idol belonged to the Mari Temple of Siral. The delusional priest of the temple had disfigured it and thrown into the river.

R. K. Narayan weaves the element of supernatural into the story. We learn that the stone image was actually one of the twin idols of dwarapalakas of the Mari temple of Siral. The actual story of how the stone image came to be at the bottom of river Sarayu is narrated by the village rustic who had got the twin dwarapalakas sculpted and installed in the temple. The real story was that the priest of the temple was a drunkard. After the idols were installed he imagined that they were constantly watching over him.

He because delusional and often imagined that the idol on the left punished him by kicking him and pulling at his hair. The priest would wreak revenge by hitting back at the idol with a wooden mallot. The idol on the left bore the brunt of his rage the most. One day in rage, the priest had disloged the idol on the left and carried it and flung it into the River Sarayu. He had sunk to the bottom of the river where it stayed until the narrator found it.

Both the narrator and the archaeologist dreams of achieving fame and wealth were tragically dashed.

The Roman Image Remidial Grammar

Jumbled Sentences

Task :
Rearrange the following words and phrases to form meaningful sentences :

Question 1.
They / green / shoots / maize / put / before / a sheaf of/the horse
Answer:
They put a sheaf of green maize shoots before the horse.

Question 2.
The well / walked towards / the head / the steps / constable /of
Answer:
The head constable walked towards the steps of the well.

Question 3.
Listening III was / intently / to / between / this / Anna/ the head constable / dialogue / and
Answer:
I was intently listening to this dialogue between Anna and the head constable.

Question 4.
Several hundred / passing / there were / of them / at this moment
Answer:
There were several hundred of them passing at this moment.

Question 5.
The load / although / was light / the old man / too much/ it / for / was
Answer:
Although the load was light it was too much for the old man.

Question 6.
Which enables / to understand / us / reading / is a skill/ a written text
Answer:
Reading is a skill which enables us to understand a written text.

Question 7.
Communication / this / an / form / effective / of / is
Answer:
This is an effective form of communication.

Question 8.
Submarine earthquake / if / occurs / the earthquake / on the sea floor, / it is called / a
Answer:
If the earthquake occurs on the sea floor it is called a submarine earthquake.

Question 9.
DNA / one percent / humans / differs / just over / only / by / chimpanzees / and / of
Answer:
DNA of humans and chimpanzees differs by just over only one percent.

Question 10.
Geometry, arithmetic / the origins of / and algebra / go back to / in India / remote periods
Answer:
The origins of Geometry and arithmetic in India go back to remote periods.

Forms of Words

I. Write the suitable forms of words given in brackets and fill in the blanks :

  1. The examination was made easy by the examiner.
  2. I was saddened by the sadness around me.
  3. The students were very happy to read the text which gave happiness to the teacher.
  4. The colourful flowers added a new colourfulness to the flower show. The kids took their colour pencils to draw the pictures.
  5. The multilingual actor showed his acting skills in the five-act play which was an act filled drama.
  6. Terrorism is an act of terrorist.
  7. Man has invented many scientific gadgets using his knowledge of science. The science in man will resolve complex issues scientifically.

II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of words given in brackets using the suffixes – ly, ness, er, able, ful. Watch out for some tricky ones!

(slow, kind, play, honour, wonder)

  1. The traffic was slow in the morning and the vehicles moved slowly.
  2. The honour of inviting the honoured guest was mine.
  3. The kindness shown by the kind hearted person was divine.
  4. The player got the award for fair play.
  5. I was filled with a sense of wonder when the wonderful opportunity came my way.
  6. The playful attitude among children will vanish as they mature playfully.
  7. The player has a playful rapport with all his team members.

III. Construct meaningful sentences using the words and phrases given below:

  1. Lynched (killed) : The irate mob lynched the child-lifter.
  2. Unscrupulous (unprincipled) : The unscrupulous doctor lied about the benefits of the surgery.
  3. Malice (ill-will): We should help one and all without any malice in our heart.
  4. Sparkle (shine brightly with flashes of light) – (Vivacity or wit) : There was a mysterious sparkle in her eyes.
  5. Inquest (A judical inquiry – investigation) : After the initial inquest the cook was charged for the murder.
  6. Breathtaking (magnificient) : The view of the mountains from our lodge was breath-taking.
  7. Combat (battle, fight, wage war) : The narcotics wing of the police are leaving no stone unturned to combat the drug menace.
  8. Virtue (a good moral quality in a person) : Discretion is a virtue worth cultivating.
  9. Deplorable (extremely bad or unfortunate) : The condition of Bengaluru roads is deplorable, they are virtually unmotorable.
  10. Chaos (complete disorder and confusion) : The accident on the highway threw the traffic into complete chaos.

English Summary

As A Son, My Daughter Summary Notes

As A Son, My Daughter Summary Notes

Summary Notes About the Author

Sampurna Chattarji writes poetry and fiction. She also translates from Bangla. She was awarded the second prize in the All – India Poetry Competition (2005) organised by the Poetry. Society of India and The British Council. Her publications include Abol Tabol : The Nansense World of Sukumar Ray. Sampurna Chattarji’s poems are contemporary in their setting and tone. In this poem, she wants her daughter to be all that she is / was not. Having brought her up as a son, the poet finds the daughter now “too fierce, too strong, too free” and that frightens her.

As A Son, My Daughter Summary

In the poem, the poet Sampuma Chattarji wants her daughter to be all that she was not. Having brought her up as a son, the poet finds the daughter now “too fierce, too strong and too free” and that frightens her. Now she is in two minds thinking if she had done the right thing.

When you grew up,
you will be a healer
loved for your smile
and your sorceress skill.
You will be a composer
of concrete dreams,
songs of towering glass.

The poet Sampuma Chattaiji wishes her daughter would grow up to be a ‘healer’. She must be thinking that he daughter should grow up to be a doctor. She wishes that people love her daughter for her smile and for her magical healing skills, like a sorceress.

The poet again changes her mind and wishes her daughter would become an architect – “a composer of concrete dreams / songs of towering glass.” – an architect who will build fantastic high – rise structures which look like lyrics in towering glass structures.

You will be the one
to split the gene
and shed light
on every last particle of doubt.
You will know numbers so well
that you will reject them all
save two
for they will be enough
to keep you engaged endlessly
in running the world
efficient and remorseless.
A network of binary combinations.

Again, Sampuma Chattarji, wishes that her daughter would become a scientist – “one to split the gene” – who can shed light, who can find solutions on every last particle of doubt about the mysteries of nature and life.

The poet wishes that her daughter would become a Mathematician – ‘know numbers so well’ or a good Software Programmer. A software programmer has no use of any other numbers in the number system other than 0 and 1. Hence the poet believes that she will discard – reject all the other numbers except 0 and 1. These two numbers will keep her daughters engaged as a software programmer for her entire lifetime. She will be engaged in creating software that is crucial to keep this world running efficiently and relentlessly without even stopping for a nano – second, with a network of binary combinations (computer software).

When you grow up,
you will be all that I am not.
Wise, patient, with shiny long hair
and good teeth,
radiant skin to go
with your razor intellect,
as brilliant as you are beautiful.

You will be a wife
and a mother,
your children will be
brilliant and beautiful,
exactly as I see them,
perfect miniature
of all
that I am not.

Here the poet imagines the life that she anticipates her daughter should lead when she grows up. She wishes that her daughter will develop all the qualities that she does not possess -wisdom, patience, beautiful hair and teeth, radiant skin and razor-sharp intellect. She wishes her daughter’s brilliance will match her beauty – or rather her brilliance would compliment her beauty.

Again the poet-mother wishes that when her daughter grows up into young women, she should get married and become the mother of brilliant and beautiful children – children who exactly resemble those she has imagined. The poet wishes that these children will be perfect miniature’s of all that she is not. i.e., the poet wishes that her grandchildren would not resemble her but should be bom with brilliant brains and matching beauty, so that everyone will admire them.

I brought you up as a son,
my daughter,
fierce and strong and free.
But now, now
that you are, have become, all that I am not,
you are too fierce, too strong, too free.
Your hair is too short.
Your absences too long.
You fear nothing.
You frighten me.

Here the poet-mother now addresses her daughter directly. She tells her that she had brought up her like a son, so her daughter had become fierce, strong and a free individual. These characteristic qualities are usually seen in male children. But the poet-mother hadn’t imagined that her daughter would become exact inverse of herself (poet) – “all that I am not”.

The daughter never cultivated feminine qualities that the poet -mother wished that her daughter should possess. Her daughter had grown up to be “too fierce, too strong, too free” – like a boy. She had cut her hair short and stayed out all day long with her friends. Her daughter had become an absolutely fearless girl. All this now frightens the poet-mother.

The poet-mother begins to ponder if she had done the right thing by bringing up her daughter like a son. She had wished that her daughter should possess all the qualities that she herself never possessed such as beauty, brains, fearlessness, etc. But now the poet-mother is in two minds, that if she had done the right thing in bringing up her daughter like a son. She is apprehensive of her daughter’s fixture – which she imagines should be glorious. Now she is concerned of her daughters future.

When you grew up,
you will be a healer
loved for your smile
and your sorceress skill.
You will be a composer
of concrete dreams,
songs of towering glass.

You will be the one
to split the gene
and shed light
on every last particle of doubt.
You will know numbers so well
that you will reject them all
save two
for they will be enough
to keep you engaged endlessly
in running the world,
efficient and remorseless.
A network of binary combinations,

When you grow up,
you will be all that I am not.
Wise, patient, with shiny long hair
and good teeth,
radiant skin to go
with your razor intellect,
as brilliant as you are beautiful.
You will be a wife
and a mother,
your children will be
brilliant and beautiful,
exactly as I see them,
perfect miniature of all
that I am not.

I brought you up as a son,
my daughter,
fierce and strong and free.
But now, now
that you are, have become,
all that I am not,

As A Son, My Daughter Glossary

  • Sorceress : A woman who practices magic.
  • Remorseless : Relentless, continuing in a way that does not end or that seems impossible to stop.
    Binary
  • Combinations : A number system based only on the numerals 0 & 1 (Computer language)
  • Razor intellect : A sharp mind and intelligence
  • Miniature : Very small of its kind, represented on a smaller scale.

As A Son, My Daughter Questions And Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences

Question 1.
The poem is addressed to the :
a. Daughter
b. Son
c. Mother
d. Father
Answer:
a. Daughter

Question 2.
What is the ‘healer’ loved for?
Answer:
The ‘healer’ is loved for her smile and her magical healing skills.

Question 3.
The daughter will be a composer of _________.
Answer:
concrete dreams.

Question 4.
Which mysteries does the daughter unravel?
Answer:
The daughter will split the ‘gene’ and unravel the mysteries of every last particle of doubt.

Question 5.
Why does the daughter reject all the numbers except the binaries?
Answer:
The daughter would become a software engineer who develops computer software – computer language. A software developer does not need any other numbers in the number system except 0 and 1. Hence she will reject all the other numbers except the binaries.

Question 6.
The Mother / poet wants to see in her daughter the at-tributes which she lacks – (True/ False)
Answer:
True

Question 7.
How will the grandchildren of the poet be?
Answer:
Perfect miniatures of all that the poet-mother is not.

Question 8.
How has the poet/mother brought her daughter up?
Answer:
The poet-mother has brought up her daughter as a son.

Question 9.
Why is the poet/mother frightened?
Answer:
The poet-mother is frightened because her daughter has developed boyish qualities. She has cut her hair short and spends most of her time with her friends away from home. She is also fierce, strong and too free. She does not seem to have the feminine qualities such as beauty with brains that her mother wishes she should possess.

II. Answer the following questions in 80-100 words:

Question 1.
What are the dreams and aspirations of the mother for her daughter?
Answer:
The poet-mother dreams and aspires that her daughter would grow up to be a magical healer – a doctor, or an architect who builds dreamful high-rise structure which appear like lyrics in towering glass. She also dreams that her daughter would become a scientist who can unravel the mysteries of nature and life. She wishes that her daughter would be a very brilliant software programmer who would create programs that keep the world running for ever. The poet-mother dreams that her daughter would grow up into a beautiful women who possesses matching beauty also. She wishes that her daughter would marry and beget perfect miniature brilliant and beautiful children, who do not resemble their grandmother (poet).

Question 2.
Why does the speaker want her daughter to be all that she is not?
Answer:
The poet-mother believes that she is not wise, patient and beautiful. She imagines that she does not possess intellect so she wishes her daughter would grow up to be quite the opposite of her. She wishes that her daughter would possess wisdom, patience, shiny long hair and beautiful teeth and radiant skin and razor sharp intelligence.

Question 3.
Explain the reasons for bringing up a daughter like a son?
Answer:
The poet-mother brought up her daughter like a son wishing to see in her daughter the attributes which she lacks. Such as fearlessness, strength and independence.

Question 4.
Having brought the daughter up as a son, the poet finds her now “too fierce, too strong, too free.” Is her fear justified? Explain.
Answer:
I think the poet-mother’s fears are justified. Her daughter has grown-up to be too fierce, too strong, and too free, all that the poet-mother was not. Her daughter had cut her hair short like a boy and spends most of her time out with her friends like a boy. These boyish attributes frighten the poet-mother. Her daughter does not possess all that she hoped that her daughter should possess.

She arpires that her daughter grows up to be a beautiful women with matching intellect. She wanted her daughter to grow up marry and beget brilliant and beautiful children who are perfect miniatires of all that she desires her grandchildren should possess. Now the poet-mother is apprehensive that her daughter will grow-up without the qualities she desired to see in her daughter.

III. Answer the following questions in 200-250 words:

Question 1.
There is a noticeable difference between the mother and the daughter. Are they brought up in two different mi-lieus? Comment.
Answer:
Yes, there is a noticeable difference between the mother and the daughter. They have surely brought up in two different milieus.

The poet-mother believes that she has been brought up in an environment where girls are required to develop all the feminine qualities that is essential for a girl-child. So the poet-mother had brought up her daughter as a son, so that she could develop to be a fearless, strong and independent women. Her wish had come true. Her daughter had in reality grown up into a fearless, strong and independent young women.

Her daughter had imbibed many qualities of boyishness. She had cut her hair too short and spent most of her time with her friends and was seldom seen at home. Now the mother feels that she shouldn’t have brought up her daughter as a son because the she dreams that her daughter should grow up into a young woman endowned with beauty and matching brains. She dreams that her daughter should marry and be the mother of brilliant and beautiful, perfect miniature children exactly opposite herself

Now she fears that her daughter would not fulfil her aspirations and is apprehensive that her dreams wouldn’t come true and hence she appears frightened.

Question 2.
The poet wants her daughter to be all that she was not. Is she right in thinking so? Discuss.
Answer:
It is true that parents have their own aspirations for their children. They want their children to be a more better person then themselves and achieve everything they themselves couldn’t.

In the poem, the poet, Sampuma Chattarji dreams that her daughter would grow up to be a beautiful person with razor sharp intellect. She aspires her daughter would become a eminent doctor a renowned architect or a brilliant software programmer or a brilliant scientist who can unravel the mystries of everything in this world. The poet-mother dreams that her daughter would grow up into a beautiful women who possesses matching beauty also. She wishes that her daughter would marry and beget brilliant, beautiful miniature children, who do not resmeable their grandmother in anyway.

But to the apprehension of the poet-mother her daughter has her own mind, dreams and aspiration. The poet-mother brought up her daughter as a son. Hence, the daughter grew up into a fearless, strong and independent young girl. The poet-mother had wished that her daughter would grow up to be a wise, patient women with shiny long hair, beautiful teeth and skin, with razor sharp intellet. She wished that her daughter would marry and beget brilliant and beautiful children who didn’t resemble their grandmother in any-way.

But to the poet is apprehensive her daughter had grown up to be a tomboy. She had cut her hair too short and always spent too much time with her friends away from the house.

Her daughter had grown-up to be an independent young women with her own dreams and aspirations. Even though the poet-mother is apprehensive of her daughter’s future and think that her own dreams and aspirations would be shattered, it is better that the poet let her daughter pursue her own dreams and aspirations to avoid alienation and disharmony.

English Summary

The Ramapuram Tiger Summary Notes

The Ramapuram Tiger Summary Notes

The Ramapuram Tiger About The Author

If Jim Corbett was a popular name in North India, Kenneth Anderson was popular in South India for hunting man-eaters. Both had expertise in hunting rogue animals as well as excellent storytelling. Both were known for shikar in colonial India. Both loved the wild, life and preferred to shoot with their cameras rather than their guns. But when it was inevitable, they picked their guns. Their vivid storytelling catches the attention of the readers and makes it interesting reading.

“The Ramapuram Tiger” is an exciting story of the man-eater in Ramapuram locality near Biligirirangan Hills of Kollegal district. As in Thomas Hardy’s novels, the topography of Biligirirangan Hills comes alive in the story of Kenneth Anderson. It also provides an account of the life of the Sholagas/Soligas – a tribe living in the locality. An interesting account of life in the forests and understanding the wildlife is presented to the reader with clinical precision. The beauty of the forests, the thickets, and the greenery makes Anderson fall in love with it and. wildlife in these jungles inspires him to bring us exciting narratives.

The Ramapuram Tiger Summary

This is the story of a tiger that kept Ramapura district, 3,600 sqmts literally on their toes. This tiger was sought after by all but found by none until the end came unexpectedly.

The narrator actually brings the drama in front of the reader by giving importance to all details. In the west there are forests of Mysore and Ramapuram of north Coimbatore is hilly area with forest and low-lying plains with Nilgiri mountain range and around surrounded by Biligirirangan hill, forests of Salem, and the Cauvery River. Kollegal, Mysore, Biligirirangan Hills, Lokkanhalli, Bailur are all the areas around this place. There is ‘Bison Range’ close by, Bargur and Tamarakarai too are the areas close to Ramapuram. The connecting roads to the lorry traffic and bus service from Ramapuram were unfit for motor traffic.

Only jeeps and high clearance American cars were motorable on those roads. Gravel and boulders were strewn around and the tracks were narrow and deep from the wheels of bullock carts between dense forests. Streams and rivers cross many times to reach this district. Deeper into the valley, bamboos have invaded the forest area. The bamboo shoots scratch the base of the car and the bent, hanging branches rub on the sides of the vehicle. Many times, by the time the vehicle reached this spot, the radiator would be invariably boiling. Sometimes the bamboos or branches, because of the hungry elephants’ ravenous appetite would be on the path. The driver usually halts, gets out with a chopper, cuts and makes way, drags the obstruction out of the path, and moves on.

Tigers usually dislike very dense vegetation and enjoy the borders of the forest which is also the domain of the bison and elephants. The tigers can’t chase deer in the dense forest area. They stalk and ambush and attack. Wild pigs, cattle too do not enter the dense forests. In the deep jungle, there are pests like leeches, flies, and ticks which the tigers cannot tolerate.

The Rampuram man-eater was reported to have come from the Cauvery bank from PonnachaiMalai where coffee-estates are owned by Sholagas. The tiger killed and ate many cattle. The owner of one of the plantations purchased a gin-trap (cottonseed separating machine) and when the tiger killed and took away a milch-cow, the planter planned to set the gin-trap.

The tiger had hidden the cow amidst dried leaves far away from the district and was away when the villagers tracked the dead cow and set the trap near the hind limbs of the dead cow from where the tigers usually begin eating. Once the tiger returned, its head got caught in the long sharp teeth of the gin-trap. Roaring with pain, the tiger escaped pulling the machine with him and cried and moaned for a long time. Finally, the animal broke loose somehow but lost its left ear and an eye in the process. With severe injuries in the neck and face, there was silence after a while. People thought that the tiger was dead. The planters watched for the scavenger bird, vultures to hover around to look for the dead tiger. The vultures were soaring in the skies and there was no clue of the wounded or dead tiger on earth.

After a fortnight, one afternoon, along the path of one of the estates, Jeyken, a saga was walking and according to the Indian custom, his 18 years old wife was following him. She walked with a sack of grain on her head. Suddenly from the sugarcane clump, a tiger pounced upon the girl and dragged her into the bushes. Jaylen stood like a stone when her wife looked at him pleadingly. It was the tiger heavily, wounded with one ear is torn and no left eye. A month later a herd-boy was killed and half eater, remains were found in a bush. A third man was killed three weeks later near Kollegal. A road-coolie, a middle-aged woman was attacked by five in the evening.

By this time, the author Kenneth Anderson’s game license had expired. But learning about the outrage by the tiger, he left for Kollegal, got his license and he also collected all information about the tiger. Though the area was new to him, he drove to that area and wanted to win the confidence of the inhabitants of Ramapuram. They too couldn’t give an approximate area to find it but only guessed it to be in some area. He drove and sometimes walked along the reserve area crossing many hamlets hoping to learn something about the tiger. Each village had seen a tiger just two-three days before.

At Bailur, he got clarity about the torn ear, no left eye and scars of the wound on the tiger. He walked to the nearest reserve forest bungalow. All around the bungalow was thick tree-top carped with fireflies. By early morning 2, he heard moaning of the tiger and it faded away with time. He, along with two local hunters he also purchased three young bulls for bait. One bull was tied near the bank of the river, the other was close to the roadside and the third where the road-coolie was killed. He found pug marks, which belonged to a male tiger and heavier and older animals. By evening, Jeyken approached the author who got to know that a sahib has come to shoot the tiger. Revengeful Jeyken offered assistance. Waiting, planning, plotting, finding out from nearby villagers, was all they did at Bailur village. Next morning, still all the baits were alive. Solanas are jungle folks and good guides and are daring and brave.

They found the footprints of male panther, female panther with her cubs but no sign of this man-eater. The next evening, his assistants returned to report that one of the baits had been killed and removed by a tiger. It was getting dark but fortunately, the author was prepared to hunt in the dark. Torch and night¬shooting kit were kept ready. When they went close to the area where the bait was killed, it was found that the pug marks were of a tigress and not of a tiger.The author planned to make a hideout for himself then calculated another plan. When he went investigating further, he found out that the tiger had carried the bull through the bushes which was not easy to locate. Still, he managed to find two places where the tigress had laid the kill and picked up again. It appeared as though she was carrying it to her cubs.

He wanted to have a glimpse of the tigress only to find out if it was a man-eater or any other tiger. He was following the path on the hill amidst boulders with blood marks giving away the trail. As he ventured further, he saw cubs playing. One cub was innocently surprised and the other made a small hiss. This awoke the mother which came out of the cavern and got ready to pounce. It sat on its tummy and roared. She was not the man-eater. She seemed to tell me to back out else she would kill. As he returned, he still had his finger on the trigger. She did not harm and he did not want to spoil the happy family too. She was afraid and I was afraid too. He passed the path he had walked in reverse and near the road, enjoyed a cigarette.

It somehow struck to him to go check the other bait. It was getting dark and until he went closer he could not make out the bait among the bushes and moreover the bait was a dark brown one. As he approached closer, the bait was safe and he went to check about the rope and suddenly from nowhere, the man-eater charged. Fortunately, he had moved on to the other side and the bull was in-between the tiger and himself. He was taken by surprise. With severe adventurous drama, the tiger attacked the bull, caught him by its neck, by when the author shot between its eyes, another shot which killed the bull and the third went into the tiger’s body. After few moments, the tiger was still. The first bullet had hit the skull, the second went through the chest and the third was through the throat but unfortunately, the bull was sacrificed too. The author went cold and completely shaken.

The inhabitants gathered in the street with excitement and anticipation. They were wondering if it was any bear, elephant or the right one, the man-eater. As he emerged out, they welcomed him, they congratulated him, thanked and offered hot milk and banana. Many came to witness the strange scene. Jaylen’s emotion was unexplainable. Jaylen took out his knife and stabbed the tiger several times at which the author gently but firmly drew him off the scene. Its not easy to see brave strong men weeping. The author too became emotional. The next day Jeyken checks and observes that the man-eater tiger had been waiting for a human. So when the author approached the bait, it pounced upon him. Some don’t believe that tigers can plot or there would be a guiding spirit or sixth sense but it is beyond anybody’s imagination.

The Ramapuram Tiger Glossary

hold sway          : exert influence or hold power
escarpment       : a long cliff or deep slope gradients strewn
with boulders   : upward or downward slope covered with rocks
impenetrable   : out of reach, not accessible
altitude            : high level, height from the sea level
formidable       : daunting, threatening, impenetrable
moaning         : cry of pain
swooned        : faint
ethereal         : not worldly, heavenly
frugal meal   : simple or poor meal,
encumbered : weighed down by responsibility or heavy load

COMPREHENSION:

Question 1.
Where is Ramapuram?
Answer:
Rampura is in Coimbatore amidst the forest area.

Question 2.
How many months did the tiger hold the people to ransom?
Answer:
The tiger held the people to ransom for almost three months.

Question 3.
Which river forms the backdrop to the story of the tiger?
Answer:
Cauvery river forms the backdrop to the story of the tiger.

Question 4.
Why do people always carry a ‘chopper’?
Answer:
People always carry a chopper to clear the motor-able path from the overgrown bamboos or low branching trees.

Question 5.
What is the name of the river and the mountain in the tiger’s native place?
Answer:
The name of the river is Cauvery and the mountain in which the tiger was attacking in Bailur.

Question 6.
Where did the trap arrive from?
Answer:
The gin-trap arrived from Coimbatore city.

Question 7.
Why was Jeyken’s wife not supposed walk by his side?
Answer:
Jaylen was following the Indian custom of following her husband and hence not walking by his side.

Question 8.
Which office gave Anderson the license to kill?
Answer:
The office at Kollegal gave Anderson to license to kill.

Question 9.
Why the tiger is called the Ramapuram tiger?
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Rennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. The tiger in the Rampura area would carry away cattle so often that the estate owners and the villagers were fed up. The estate owner purchased a gin-trap to trap the tiger. The tiger was caught and wounded but escaped death and freed itself. Upon becoming weak, not anymore being able to hunt animals, it started killing humans in and around Ramapra and became a man-eater. Hence it is called the tiger of Ramapura.

Question 10.
Where does the tiger live in the forest and why?
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Rennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. The tiger usually lives along the borders of the forest where it can chase and kill its prey. It does not live in too deep/dense a forest. It lives around water bodies where it gets bison, deer and elephants easily.

Question 11.
How was the trap set and what happened in the aftermath?
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Rennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. In Rampura, when the tiger kept killing cattle, one of the estate owners set a gin-trap to catch the tiger. They were successful in trapping the tiger and the trap clasped the tiger’s one side of the head. Miraculously, the tiger escaped from death and disengaged the clamp. In course of getting the trap off, it lost its left eye and left ear got torn. This is the aftermath that the tiger experience.

Question 12.
Narrate the incidents that lead to the attack on Jeyken’s wife and later.
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Kennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. After the tiger escaped the trap, it lost its left eye, due to the wound and weakness, it turned to become a man-eater. First its prey was Jeyken’s wife, next a herds boy, another human and a road-coolie lady. There was a gap of two to three weeks between each kill and each time it would be a human. So it became evident that the tiger had turned man-eater post would and weakness.

Question 13.
What features did Jeyken’s life notice in the tiger?
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Kennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. After the tigress lost its eyes and was wounded badly, it was forced to look for easy prey. This is how it, unfortunately, became a man-eater. For around a month, the trap setters waited to find the corpse of the tiger which killed their cattle but in vain. Miraculously, it has escaped ‘ from the trap and death and one day out of the sugarcane bushes, it pounced upon Jeyken’s wife. Jaylen became a stone unable to respond. He stood still and saw his wife being pulled away by the tiger. He saw that it had lost one eye; its ear was torn and had bruises and a bad wound around the neck area. This is what Jeyken noticed in the tiger.

Question 14.
Explain the episode of baits and the outcome of using the baits?
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story written by Kennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. The man-eater had evoked fear in the villagers. The author got to hear about this around the fourth human getting killed and he went to the Kollegal area to help. He got a gun to shoot and with the help of two assistants and Jeyken volunteering to help, he set out baits to capture the man-eater. He bought three young bulls to be tied in expected areas and waited. Those were the places the tiger was told to be seen just two-three days before. Near the bank of the river, near the road where the woman was killed and near the forest bungalow were the places where usually more people would be seen. After waiting for three days and after chasing the wrong mother tigress, this man-eater was killed near the bait that was tied near the bungalow.

Question 15.
Describe the excitement after the death of the Ramapuram tiger.
Answer:
‘The Rampura Tiger’ is an adventurous story ‘ written by Kennet Anderson the narrator himself. It is an autobiographical story in which the author describes the catching of a man-eating tiger that had tasted human blood. The author gained the confidence of the villagers, got three young bulls as baits, got two sagas as assistants and also Jeyken volunteered to assist in killing the tigress. For 2-3 days the author went around checking, assessing, observing, and trying to understand the pattern of working of the tiger. He was looking for pug marks, kept checking the baits and kept enquiring about with the villagers. He followed the trails left by a mother tigress and risked his life. Sudden impulse made him to check the bait near the bungalow and just then the tigress pounced and the author shot three bullets at it. Immediately, the villagers gathered, Jeyken took a knife and pierced it into the dead tiger’s body several times to avenge his wife’s death. The villagers fed him with hot milk and bananas. They heartily thanked him who freed them from the man-eating tiger.

Question 16.
What preparations were required by Anderson before he took on the Ramapuram Tiger?
Answer:
Anderson was a popular south Indian hunter like Jim Corbet in the North. He was an expert in hunting troublesome animals and also in storytelling. He loved the wildlife and preferred photo shooting rather than with their guns. ‘The Ramapuram Tiger’ was a thrilling experience which, was most challenging due to the hills, mountains, rivers, and the dense forest region. The terrain around the hamlets made hunting challenging. The local villagers had set a gin-trap to kill the tiger which carried away their cattle and troubled them. But the tiger escaped and was badly wounded; losing one eye arid a torn ear, the weak tiger had no option but to go for easy prey – the human.

This is when Kenneth got to know about it and he during his vacation came to the Kollegala area in which Ramapuram is located. He got his license from Kollegala’s office and kept his gun ready. He took the help of the sagas and Jeyken who had lost his wife to that tiger too offered to assist. Kenneth went around to 5-6 hamlets in the Ramapuram area where near Bailur, he got strong responses from the villagers of seeing the tiger just 2-3 days ago. Then Kenneth bought 3 young bulls, used them as bait, and tied them in places where accidents had occurred previously. This is how he planned and prepared before he took on the Ramapuram Tiger.

Question 17.
Narrate the role played by the tiger in Jeyken and how did he avenge his wife’s death.
Answer:
Anderson was a popular south Indian hunter like Jim Corbet in the North. He was an expert in hunting troublesome animals and also in storytelling. He loved the wildlife and preferred photo shooting rather than with their guns. ‘The Ramapuram Tiger’ was a thrilling experience that was most challenging due to the hills, mountains, rivers and dense forest region. The terrain around the hamlets made hunting challenging. The author gained the confidence of the villagers, got three young bulls as baits, got two sagas as assistants and also Jeyken volunteered to assist in killing the tigress. For 2-3 days the author went around checking, assessing, observing and trying to understand the pattern of working of the tiger.

He was looking for pug marks, kept checking the baits and kept enquiring about with the villagers. He followed the trails left by a mother tigress and risked his life. Sudden impulse made him to check the bait near the bungalow and just then the tigress pounced and the author shot three bullets at it. Immediately, the villagers gathered, Jeyken took a knife and pierced it in to the dead tiger’s body several times to avenge his wife’s death. All were in similar emotions for the loss of lives and the author felt immensely hurt for Jeyken. The author gently but firmly took Jeyken away from the scene but he himself was uncontrollably hurt for Jeyken’s loss.

Question 18.
Narrate Anderson’s encounter with the tigress and her cubs.
Answer:
Anderson was a popular south Indian hunter like Jim Corbet in the North. He was an expert in hunting troublesome animals and also in storytelling. He loved the wildlife and preferred photo shooting rather than with their guns. ‘The Ramapuram Tiger’ was a thrilling experience that was most challenging due to the hills, mountains, rivers, and dense forest region. The terrain around the hamlets made hunting challenging. After setting the baits, after waiting for few days, one of the baits was killed and pulled a long way. The author followed the trail through the bushes, trees, towards the hill, in between the boulders, on the gravel till the foothill.

Thereafter, it was perhaps not dragged but carried but the bloodstains on the boulders gave away the path. With great care, in that hot sun, perspiring, he started to climb towards the summit of the hill. Suddenly two cubs took him by surprise. One cub was innocently surprised. The ’ other hissed softly because of which the tigress which was sleeping woke up and roared. This terrified the author who started to back out. It was not at all the tiger he was looking for.

It was not the man-eater but a mother tigress who was raising a happy family with two cute and adorable cubs. The tigress looked at him as if to warn him and he too walked back very carefully but with his finger on the trigger. He quickly found the path he had traveled and reached the roadside only to be relieved.

Question 19.
“The deep-hearted weeping of a strong and brave man is not pleasant to witness; it is infectious….” Explain.
Answer:
Anderson was a popular south Indian hunter like Jim Corbet in the North. He was an expert in ( hunting troublesome animals and also in storytelling. He loved the wildlife and preferred photo shooting rather than with their guns. ‘The Ramapuram Tiger’ was a thrilling experience that was most challenging due to the hills, mountains, rivers, and dense forest region. The terrain around the hamlets made hunting challenging. When the villagers forced the tiger to become a man-eater, who should be blamed-the vulnerable tiger or the intelligent human being? In this story, the man-eater had taken the lives of many cattle and humans.

It was very challenging for Kenneth to find this man-eating tigress. He who wishes to shoot with a camera had to use a gun was not an easy or desired job. When at last, Kenneth succeeded in killing all the villagers came running, gathered around the scene, and felt happy and relieved for the evil man-eater.

All villagers, brave, strong, co-existing in harmony with the surrounding ecosystem had lost their loved ones and the cattle their livestock. Jaylen, who had lost his young wife in front of his eyes to the man-eater, quickly stabbed the dead tiger again and again to avenge his wife’s death. The grief overcame at the scene and the deep-hearted weeping of a strong and brave man is not pleasant to witness; it is infectious and the author too became one with the grievers in Bailur, Ramapuram district.

JOB SKILLS

GROUP DISCUSSION

You have learnt a host of skills through your English text in the last 3 semesters. The intention in introducing topics like Interview and°Group Discussion is to provide the necessary competence to the students during their under-graduation program to face interviews and other selection procedures adopted by the companies. Students must acquire those skills that come under the umbrella called Life Skills. In the basket of Soft Skills, there are many skills like interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, communication skills, presentation skills, negotiation skills, etc.

Let us try to understand what is involved in the acquisition of skills in Interviews and Group discussions in this semester. Group Discussion often referred to as GD, can be looked at as a precursor to Interview. Group Discussion, more often than not is adopted as a screening effort before candidates are called in for interviews. However, Group Discussion offers the sheer opportunity to the selectors to test a host of skills of a candidate which otherwise is not possible in personal interviews.

  • A group discussion as the name suggests is a discussion which is undertaken in a group with a specific aim to exchange views, opinions on a chosen topic or at times to find a solution to a problem.
  • We may be participating in group discussions without even being aware that the technical term for our conversation is group discussion.
  • Our conversations in groups, if observed carefully, reveal that some of us are good at expressing opinions while others need some prodding to open up. It also can show how some of us have leadership skills in the sense that we steer the discussion towards the direction we want while some of us find a problem for any solution.
  • While all these are informal ways in which we use group discussions in a very natural way, there are situations when we consciously employ group discussions for specific purposes.IMG

How to conduct a Group Discussion:

  • Rules of the game:

o There are no specific or hard and fast rules for GD, but it is conducted to suit the purpose and the ease of discussion decides the rules, o Usually GD consists of 7-10 people or 15 at the most, o 30 mins, to 60 mins, can be allotted for a GD based on the participants

o Topics are broad-based, and mostly worded in such a way that it acts as an irritant to thought o Usually the topic is given or announced 30 minutes before the commencement of the Group Discussion.

o Usually the chairs should be arranged by the candidates to sit in a circle so that each one faces others.

o The topic for GD in the selection process will be general or domain-specific if it involves the selection of candidates for a specific domain, o Somebody can initiate a discussion and put a pattern. If one candidate starts the discussion, then it is better someone else also doesn’t start,

o Usually one who begins the discussion also frames rules for conducting the discussion. He/she decides on time allotment, process, beginning, and conclusion, etc.

o One who initiates usually scores the first point for initiation.

  • Good Morning/Good Afternoon friends…
  • Hello friends. I am Abdul Sattar. May I start the discussion if you all agree….?
  • Hi friends. It is xxxx

o Usually the system is that every candidate gets the turn in the order of seats, or if someone jumps the line, the leader should get back the discussion as per the order.
o Usually the candidate with good leadership skills will not allow the discussion to:

  • Go astray
  • Divert
  • End up in arguments
  • Lead to verbal fighting
  • Allow candidates to point fingers and hands at others
  • Allow candidates to get up in anxiety or use offensive body language
  • Allow someone to steal somebody’s time
  • Interrupt somebody without reason
  • Allow any candidate to be unkind, unethical, uncouth or abusive,
  • Allow somebody to be racist, gender-biased, or talk in a manner that hurts somebody

Usually, like any paragraph or discourse, even a group discussion has a beginning, a middle, and an end.

The Beginning

  • Good Morning friends. I am Subodh. Shall we start the discussion with 03 minutes each at the initial stage and give 03 minutes for the conclusion.
    or
  • Good Morning friends. I am Ravikanth. I am happy to be part of the discussion. May I request Ms. Nayana to start the discussion and decide on the pattern of Group Discussion?
    or
  • Good morning friends. I am Navya. It is pleasure to be part of this discussion on the topic – Are Nuclear Weapons deterrent to War’. As we have 10 in the group and 60 minutes are allotted for the entire discussion, may I ask you to speak 04 minutes to present your views and 02 minutes to conclude or wrap up. Further, I would request you to respect other’s views though you may not agree with everybody’s views. Shall we start the discussion with candidate number-1
  • Hi Mr. Vinod, good morning, as both of us started once, I would love to allow you to initiate the discussion. It is Ok. Please continue.
  • Mr. Prateek and Ms. Navya, kindly do not speak together. Let any one of you initiate the discussion and the other can take the next turn.

The Middle

  • Ms. Divya, you seem to be organizing your ideas for too long. I am sure the group would love to listen to you now.
  • Mr. Kiran, I would like you to allow others to express their views. You may agree or disagree with someone’s views but please wait for your turn.
  • Mr. Kiran, I am sure that the group would agree with your right to speak, but please be kind to other’s views.
  • Ms. Bhavya, would you like to hand over the mike to Mr. Kiran as you have exceeded your time limit
  • Mr. Bharat, you are distracting the group with your sounds. Kindly do not tap on the table with your pen.

The end

  • Friends, shall we now start the last leg of the discussion to conclude
  • Friends, now that all of us have spoken for 4 minutes each, shall we start the concluding remarks.
  • Ms. Bhavya you may start your concluding remarks and I shall wrap up the discussion and conclude once all of you present your concluding remarks.
  • Friends, it was nice and lovely to participate in the group discussion. It was a learning experience. Shall I conclude and say that most of us agree that ‘Nuclear weapons act as deterrents to war’ except to candidates who agreed to disagree.
  • Friends, thank you for your active participation. Jai Hind.

Stages of a GD

Group discussion is conducted by assigning a topic to a group. The group is then observed and assessed based on their performance in the discussion. The performance includes taking an active part in the discussion, contributing new and innovative ideas to the discussion, communicating your ideas effectively, convincing others of your ideas, disagreeing and countering ideas that you do not agree with, interacting with your fellow participants, etc. A group discussion will pass through the following stages.

(a) Initiation: Initiation is the beginning of the discussion when the first reference is made to the topic. An initiator, the one who begins the discussion, plays a major role in introducing the topic. This also indicates one’s ability to take up challenges. However, it is not always necessary that you are the first person to speak in a group discussion. You could also contribute at a later stage by adding a new perspective to the discussion. Usually, it is good to start/initiate a group discussion with a quotation or a proverb or a flashy statement.

Effective Initiators for a GD

Quotations
The proverb that the early bird catches the worm is very true.
Definitions
A start-up is a company that is in the first stage of its operations and seeks to capitalize on developing a product or service for which it believes there is a demand.
Questions
How does war help build a relationship between countries?
Shocking statements
Can you believe that by 2050 there could be more plastic than fish in the oceans by weight?
Data and statistics
Approximately 70% of the Indian population lives in rural areas. You could also use a short story related to the topic to initiate a group discussion.

(b) Taking it forward: Once a topic is introduced it has to be taken forward. To do this, you could draw in other people into the discussion or you could continue the discussion by adding new ideas. The following expressions can be used to take a discussion forward.

  • I would like to add a point.
  • To add to what you are saying…
  • I am sorry but I do not agree with what you are saying.
  • My thoughts on the issue are quite different.
  • I beg to differ with you on this…
  • Would you like to add something to what is being discussed?
  • What is your take on this?
  • Do I take it that you agree with this viewpoint?

c) Concluding/ Summarizing:

It is not necessary that all group discussions are concluded. However, you are expected to summarize the main points of a group discussion. Very briefly mention the key points discussed in the group. One should remember that you need to summarize all the views whether you agree with them or not. Also, you should not introduce any new ideas at this stage. While summarizing, be brief and concise and do not express your own ideas apart from those that have been discussed.
You could say…
We had a good discussion and heard different perspectives on this. Some of my friends were in favor
of the topic and said Some points against the
the topic was…… overall it was a fruitful discussion and
everyone participated enthusiastically.

Why Group Discussion:

  • GD can be conducted for arriving at a resolution
  • GD can be used to prepare the Mission and Vision of an organization involving all the stakeholders
  • GD can be for intense thinking on a specific topic
  • It can be used to select candidates for admission into a course
  • GD can be used to shortlist candidates for jobs
  • For Jobs, it can be used for screening candidates
  • It can be used to select a few candidates for a personal interview
  • It provides an opportunity to evaluate a candidate’s skills like interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, cooperative skills, IQ, EQ, SQ skills, listening skills, ability to coordinate, ability to relate, ability to empathize, ability to organize, analyze, conduct and conclude a discussion.
  • It can give an excellent opportunity to evaluate a candidate’s Leadership skills
  • It can be used to evaluate the ability for the initiative, motivation, and ability to sustain interest
  • It can be used to evaluate a candidate whether he/ she is able to agree or disagree and how that agreement or disagreement is managed and conveyed.
  • Whether somebody can manage stress, time, and relationships to suit the larger interest of the group
  • Whether somebody can accommodate others’ views without being offensive
  • Evaluate a candidate’s ability to organize ideas, to be aphoristic, to be focused, and illustrate if necessary.

What it requires:

  • Group Discussion requires a host of skills for successful participation in a discussion.
  • To participate in a discussion with a specific purpose ‘ or intent, one should have extensive knowledge of the topic of discussion.
  • One’s knowledge of a topic, ie, depth of knowledge, range of knowledge, presentation of the topic, catching the attention of the participants involved, sustaining the interest all through, sitting without distracting others, initiating a discussion, leading a discussion, and then concluding – all involve subtle ability on the part of the candidates.
  • Sometimes it requires the ability to give voice to the voiceless, disentangle certain discussion points and avoid flashpoints and heated arguments during the discussion.
  • It goes without saying that every GD has a beginning, a middle, and an end. So right from initiating a discussion to concluding the discussion, it requires not only complete involvement, but the ability to steer the discussion without hindrance.
  • In the case of GD for the selection of candidates, it may not have a resolution or conclusion, but candidates can differ on their viewpoints.
  • It requires skills in paralanguage viz; tone, voice modulation, tenor, presentation, gestures, etc. It requires excellent skills in body language. Eye contact, facial expression, smile, eyebrows, body movement all need to be managed to convey properly and without hurting anybody.

What you need to take care:

  • Reach the location well in advance.
  • Look for the notification on the topic of discussion.
  • Organize ideas and present with coherence and cohesion.
  • Arrange thoughts in a systematic manner without digression
  • Take care of the dress code. Prefer a formal dress. Plan your appearance.
  • Take care of the seating arrangement
  • Do not be offensive or abusive while you demand discipline in the conduct of the GD
  • Do not abuse those who are abusive but learn to put wisdom in a subtle way
  • Do not distract, fiddle with pen, etc.
  • Avoid gaudy lipstick, perfumes, or over make-up. Dress up to the occasion and adopt the formal language and body language

Body Language for GD:

  • Make eye-contact
  • Adopt a comfortable posture. Look relaxed but do not sit either tight or ajar. Look for poise
  • Sit cross-legged if it is your poise ‘
  • Avoid pointing fingers or hands
  • Do not turn your chair or sit in an odd way so as to face only one or two.
  • Do not adopt defensive body language
  • Use open gestures and wear a smile
  • Make others comfortable with your body language and language
  • Do not move legs or fiddle with pens, pencils, etc
  • Do not distract others
  • Do not seek attention. But play a positive role, be cooperative.
  • Use the right tone, tenor, pitch, and modulate your voice. Do not shout at your pitch

Practice:

Practice undoubtedly is the best learning tool. Teachers can give a topic in advance and ask students in small groups to practice. Group Discussion as a skill is introduced to help students to acquire competence so that they can effectively and efficiently participate in a GD during the selection process. Teachers can also record the discussion and replay using the ICT tools and point out mistakes and appreciate the strengths. Replaying the recorded GD can help students rectify their mistakes and observe their body language so as to make effective rectifications.

Note: A series of practice sessions can be conducted in the class. You can also watch for mock GDs on Youtube.

IMG

Some Topics of GD:

  1. Nuclear weapons are deterrents to war
  2. Women should not be given the option of night shift in the industry
  3. Social Security Number should be made mandatory in India
  4. Social Media should be banned in India
  5. Prostitution should be accorded the status of the industry

Suggested Questions:

I. Answer the following in one or two sentences each:

Question 1.
Why is GD preferred as a screening? procedure?
Answer:
GD is preferred in the screening process as it will evaluate the candidate’s skills like inter-personal, intra-personal, and co-operative skills. Intelligence quotient, Spiritual quotient, and the emotional quotient, ability to relate, empathize, organize, conduct and conclude appropriately will be measure.

Question 2.
What is the ideal number of participants in GD?
Answer:
The ideal number for holding a GD is between 5-6.

Question 3.
Write three body language features that should not be used during the GD.
Answer:
Body language which should not be used

  • Don’t point fingers or hands
  • Don’t appear offensive or defensive
  • Don’t distract others

Question 4.
Mention three important things that you should take care of during the initiation.
Answer:
During initiating/beginning a GD, make it interesting and sharp to the point

  • Begin with quotes or proverbs
  • Use definitions
  • Ask questions

Question 5.
How do you conclude a Group Discussion?
Answer:
It is not necessary that all GD’s must end positively with respect to the topic. It can also be disagreed by many/all of the participants. Summarize the main points and introduce any new idea if any. Be brief and concise while concluding. Do not add fresh new point which was not discussed at all.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph:

Question 1.
What are the precautions that one should take during the GD?
Answer:
GD requires a candidate to be fluent in the language first. Then the skill sets to speak/listen focused to the topic. Precaution needs to be taken about the dress, reaching on time, not to use offensive language. Even if another person is offensive, subtly discipline then which will be your skill in managing the team better. Precaution needs to be taken about the choice of words, being positive, body language and paralanguage. It is important to wait for an appropriate opportunity without being attention seeker or only a mute spectator.

Question 2.
What are the points that you need to remember to deal with people who use offensive language or bodylanguage?
Answer:
GD is a team performance and the success of a GD depends on each individual’s effective contribution. We should remember that all are team members and all have equal responsibilities to participate. If anybody seems to be offensive or putting down the other, one can subtly indicate it and it is wise not to react to offensive or abusive act to talk. The body language begins with appropriate dressing sense with color too not being too gaudy and bold. Do not keep meddling with hair or play with the ear wear etc. Comfortable clothing with pleasing mannerism is good body language.

Question 3.
How to give voice to the voiceless or people who are not motivated to participate in a GD?
Answer:
It is important to have a mind set to be a good part ‘ of the GD. Without which, the whole idea of participating in the GD will go waste. In spite of it, if some member is shy or silent, then the initiator in the beginning itself can make it interesting evoking the interest of that silent participant. At a later stage if one becomes silent, then the moderator or any of the participant can provoke or prompt a direct question asking ‘Let’s hear it now from ! or ‘Share your opinion on this point Mr

Question 4.
Write a paragraph on theways to be adopted if two people start once and intend to score marks and also when people argue with each other. Write two separate paragraphs.
Answer:
If two people begin speaking at once, politely one can stop and say sorry and let the other continue. No need to make any one feel offended. Attending a GD needs maturity and wisdom. Then one can begin again to say ‘ I have a point to add…’ and complete., When people begin to argue, it is not discussion at all. The moderator can intervene and divert or stop. Argument shows immaturity. People can disagree and try to convince and influence.

III. Write the text for Group Discussion when you participate in one:

a) Candidate 1: Good morning friends. Welcome to the group discussion on the topic ‘Voting should be made mandatory’.
Candidate 2: Sure. Is there time allotted to Speak? Candidate 1: Yes we can allot time like that. Let us start with candidate number 3.
Candidate 3: Shall I speak for 6 minutes, or 5 minutes?
Candidate 1: No speak for 3 minutes and take 3 minutes to conclude.
f. Candidate 3:
1. Friends India is the biggest democracy and people vote for their representatives who make laws that run the nation.
2. Voting is your duty & responsibility.
3. All above 18 years og age can vote after registering.
you can get the facilities you deserve if you elect them. right.
4. Candidate.
5. Do not regret it later.
g. Candidate 4: Thank you for your highly thought-provoking ideas. I think:
1. Voting is a proud moment.
2. It empowers the citizens.
3. Be alert while casting vote.
4. Each vote is valuable.

IV. Write Text for GD which you may present for the topic: India should reduce the voting age to 16. The text may run into one page.

India should reduce the voting age to 16.
Candidate 1: Good afternoon friends. I Kiran, Welcome you all to the Group Discussion on the topic: India should reduce the voting age to 16.’ Let’s. begin and conclude in 5 minutes.
Candidate 2: 16 years old are too immature to decide and vote.
Candidate 3: 16 years ago, is to still understand self and get groomed. It is not the age to assess the electoral candidate.
Candidate 4: That teenagers are still to get influenced by others. When they themselves are working to build their own identity, they are vulnerable. It is not wise to make them participate in elections.
Candidate 5: 16 years old citizens can seriously cast votes in colleges and other clubs to get to the pros & cons of the election. They must get to know the procedure and importance, background, qualification, and intentions of the contesting candidate. Then they can cast votes in colleges and clubs.
Candidate 2: I too feel that 16 years ago is not right. They are not matured enough to get into the system of a national election and are not capable of making decisions.
Candidate 3: It is too early to give 16 years the responsibility of choosing a leader.
Candidate 4: So we can conclude that India should
not reduce the voting age to 16. Thank you all for participating actively. Unanimously we have discussed the topic. Good day.

V. Describe how to begin, sustain and conclude a Group Discussion in about a page.

The Beginning

  • Introduce in any way of your choice. Greet appropriately. Tell the name, topic and the time to be spent.
  • Give chance equally to all participants, if anyone is silent or shy or not contributing, specifically the moderator can prompt that individual.
  • If any person speaks offensively, it needs to be wisely handled not to offend him/her in return.
  • The group discussion should not turn to arguments.
  • Talk more about the W/H of the topic so that in the next phase, the reasons, logic, and the previous experiences if any regarding the topic can be discussed.

The objective/ middle/crux of the topic

  • Based on the established topic, keep adding reasons to go for the topic or to go against the topic.
  • Some points will favor and some logic will be against. Still discuss to get better clarity.
  • Candidates can add more reasons to make a point strong or weak

Conclusion:

  • Begin the conclusion to list advantages and disadvantages.
  • Support the statements with good reason.
  • Shape the statements well to convince and do justice to the topic.
  • Conclude by repeating all the important points not leaving anybody’s contribution.
  • Thank all participants.

English Summary

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery About The Poet

One of the greatest political leaders and the constructor of modern India, Ambedkar was the pioneer in the study of caste and untouchability. He observed, studied, and assessed the different dimensions with which discrimination at social, political, economic, and educational levels existed. With his writings, he confronted the world which differentiated people and betrayed them. He relentlessly worked to bring order and reform which was similar and parallel to Gandhiji’s. Here Ambedkar says that slavery is better than untouchability.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary

Slavery is not a free social order. Is untouchability a free social order? The Hindus say it is the social order. Untouchability and slavery are not the same. Untouchability is the worst. Slavery is not obligatory but untouchability is. At least, the slave can get lucky and become free but an untouchable will remain untouchable for life. Untouchability is an indirect form of slavery and deprivation from freedom. So double betrayal in the society. An untouchable is a free citizen; he has all rights of a citizen but tie him with the label where he has not chance to realize the cruel deception. It is indirect but real.

To distinguish between the two – untouchability and Slavery, we need to test if education, virtue, happiness, culture and wealth are possible in slavery or untouchability? Judged many times, Slavery is a hundred times better than untouchability. Slaves at least get to learn skills in business or art or according to Mures, the slave gets a glimpse in to the initiation into a higher culture. Personal growth can be seen among slaves. But considering the slavery in Rome, we cannot call slavery better.

Some training, some initiation in to the culture was beneficial to the slave. The master invested some amount in training the slave. Slaves were trained in domestic help or in craftwork. With the existing staff, the rich had special pedagogues for domestic help. To work as domestic help, slaves many times were deprived to work at industries, arts and crafts and education as the family was trained well into which the children followed.

The master took an interest to train the slave only to gain better as loyalty was confirmed. Also, the skilled slave would sell for better price. Even if he was hired, he would earn more wage for the master. Spending on the training of slaves was a good investment for the master. The slave falls and bows down to the master and as a return, the master provides him food, clothes, and shelter. This is better. But sometimes, if the slave does not always find a job, unlike the freeman, it is the duty of the master to provide bread and shelter. If the master does not find job/work, the slave does not suffer. All masters do suffer from business booms and lows but this does not affect the slave.

This is the advantage for a slave over a free man but slavery is unfree social order. Slaves were master-owned properties and hence valuable. Out of this interest, Master took good care of the health and well-being of the slaves. Cato advised Romans not to have slaves on marshy or malarial land. Only freemen were employed as it was not the responsibility of the master to care for a freeman.

Untouchability does not have any of the advantages — food, clothes and shelters. These do not have an entry in to the higher arts of civilization and they are not let near cultured life. He must only sweep and nothing else. Untouchability carries no security to livelihood. No Hindu feeds, accommodates or shares clothing. Nobody cares for an untouchable’s health and the death of an untouchable is regarded as good riddance. A Hindu proverb says ‘ With a dead untouchable, the fear of pollution has vanished.’

Untouchable experiences all the disadvantages of a free social order. A free individual untouchable has responsibility and struggles to survive from inequality. The untouchables neither have the equal opportunity nor a square deal. Untouchability is positively cruel as compared to slavery. These will have to compete with slave and the rest for job/work. In this competition, with the scales always weighing against him by the reason of his social stigma, he is the last to be employed and first to be fired. Untouchables are owned for personal interests and purposes and can be disowned easily. Untouchables are more disadvantaged than slaves.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Glossary

obligatory                    : Required or binding by a law or rule
compulsion                 : The act of using force or pressure to make someone do something
emancipation              : to free someone from someone else’s control or power
deprivation                 : the state of not having something that people need
enslavement               : to make someone a slave
deception                   : an act or statement intended to make a person believe something that is not true
enduring                    : lasting, durable
apprenticeship          : a person who learns a job or skill by working for a fixed period of time
initiation                    : the process of being formally accepted as a member of a group or organisation
inherent                     : belonging to the basic nature of someone or something
pedagogue                : a teacher especially formal or pedantic
forfeit                         : something that is lost or given up as punishment or because of a rule or law
ebbs                           : the time when the tide flows out from the land
vicissitudes                 : the quality or state or being changeable/ mutability
prudent                     : having or showing careful good judgment
riddance                    : an act of ridding, deliverance relief
stigma                        : a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something

COMPREHENSION:

Question 1.
What is the difference between untouchability and slavery?
Answer:
Untouchability is obligatory and has no option in the so called free social order whereas, slavery has hope for liberation. Slaves have entry in to higher arts of civilization.

Question 2.
Why is untouchability the worst form of slavery?
Answer:
Untouchables are owned by the Hindus and if disowned, they become responsible for maintaining themselves without any skill or acceptance by others. There is no personal growth and remain fit only to sweep.

Question 3.
How does untouchability become unconscious and indirect?
Answer:
In a free society, untouchability is obligatory where it gets carried on for generations making untouchable a noticeable stratum of the society. With no entry to any kind of skill, untouchables indirectly suffer from loss of identity and no voice to go against the powerful.

Question 4.
What is cruel deception?
Answer:
In slavery, the master is responsible for the welfare of the slave but in case of untouchables, it is obligatory. An untouchable has no value, he cannot be bought or sold, he has no skill, he has no introduction in to culture or civilization. Though he belongs to the free order of the society, he is helpless and vulnerable.

Question 5.
Slavery and Untouchability is a
a. Free social order
b. Unfree social order
c. Democratic order
d. None of the above
Answer:
Slavery and untouchability both are not free social order but cruelly deceptive.

Question 6.
In slavery there is room for ……………………… and …………………………….
Answer:
In slavery, there is room for education and culture to be learnt.

Question 7.
Name some training received by the slaves.
Answer:
Slaves may receive training in domestic work, skilled craft, trade, literacy and arts.

Question 8.
Who was the king of the Roman Empire mentioned in the text?
Answer:
Cato the Elder, is the Roman emperor mentioned in the text.

Question 9.
What are the advantages of training a slave?
Answer:
The advantage of training a slave is that if sold, he will fetch a better price. If hired, he will bring more wages. Training the slave is an investment for the master.

Question 10.
Whose duty was it to look after the slave in life and body?
Answer:
It is the duty and responsibility of the master/owner to look after the slave in life and body by providing food, clothes and shelter.

Question 11.
Which rule has no applicability to the slave?
Answer:
If there is no work, then there is no food rule that does not apply to the slave. It is the duty and responsibility of the master to provide the slave with food, clothes and shelter when he cannot find work for his slave.

Question 12.
What advice did king Cato give to the Roman farmers?
Answer:
Cato advised Roman farmers not to appoint slaves on marshy and malarial land where slave is a valuable property and the responsibility of the owner. Any time the slave could fall prey to malaria and die. This would be a loss.

Question 13.
What is the only duty of an untouchable?
Answer:
The only duty of an untouchable is to sweep.

Question 14.
The greatest disadvantage of a free social order is ………………………
Answer:
the responsibility for survival in the struggle for ‘ existence.

Question 15.
“Untouchability has none of the advantages of an unfree social order such as slavery. It has all the disadvantages of a free social order.” Explain.
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. The author says that untouchability is more disadvantageous as it has no emancipation, though falls in the free order category in the society; no one takes responsibility to treat them with equality. The only job for then is the clean the mess made by others without voicing and keep sweeping. Untouchability is accepted unconsciously and indirectly. It has all the disadvantages of free social order.

Question 16.
What does Prof. Mures’s expression ‘an initiation into a higher culture’ mean with reference to slavery? Comment
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, , political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. Professor Muressays that slavery is advantageous over untouchability as in, slaves can take an apprenticeship in business or art. This is an entry or initiation into a higher culture where these slaves are skilled and are valuable.

Question 17.
Why did the master take interest in training the slave?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic, and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. The master who owned the slaves would readily get his slave trained as he will be better skilled and will fetch more money if sold or will bring more wages if hired. Though the master had to fend for the slave’s food, clothing and shelter whether a slave has work or not, the slave would be property for him.

Question 18.
What are the disadvantages of being untouchable in a free social order?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. Dr.Ambedkar compares and contrasts between slavery and untouchability in depth. Though in a free society, slavery is better over untouchability as untouchables have accepted it unconsciously and indirectly they are suppressed which goes on for generations. Untouchables are in all cases responsible for themselves without skill or identity. They are just unwanted and are left only to sweep.

Question 19.
How is untouchability not only worse than slavery but positively cruel as compared to slavery?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. In comparison, untouchability has greatest disadvantage of a free social order. Untouchables are not given any fair start, no equal opportunity and a square deal. He is a free individual who is responsibility and he has no owner to take care or disown! He will be responsible for his food, clothes and shelter without an awareness to any skill or another culture but for sweeping.

Question 20.
Discuss the factors which worked to the great advantage of the slave?
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. In a free society, slaves are not free. In a free society, are untouchables free? Debatable. Professor Mures assesses the plight of slaves and tells that they are ‘ advantaged as they have scope to be apprentices in business or art. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. The • more skilled a slave is that much beneficial it is for the master. The slave would fetch more money if he was sold or he would bring more wages if hired. Cato, from the Roman empires advised the farmers not to employ slaves as they cannot afford to lose them to malaria and go bad in farming. The master, the owners had the responsibility and duty of providing food, clothes and shelter to the slaves whether they worked or not in any particular phase.

Question 21.
“An Untouchable has no entry in the higher arts of civilization and no way open to a life of culture as that of slave.” Substantiate.
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and , untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. Whereas in untouchability, they are not eligible for training as it is caste based discrimination.

It is obligatory and indirect way in which untouchables are stuck to the only job of clearing the mess. Considering that they belong to the free order, they are responsible for their maintenance. They have no security to their livelihood. Hindus are not responsible for the feeding, housing and clothing. None is responsible for the health of an untouchable. On all these, the death of an untouchable is believed to purify the earth better. When this is the situation, there is no entry for an untouchable in the higher arts of civilization and no way is he open to a life of culture as that of a slave.

Question 22.
Why is it better to be a slave in an unfree social order than be untouchable in a free social order?
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. Whereas in untouchability, they are not eligible for training as it is caste based discrimination.

It is obligatory and indirect way in which untouchables are stuck to the only job of clearing the mess. Considering that they belong to the free order, they are responsible for their maintenance. They have no security to their livelihood. Hindus are not responsible for the feeding, housing and clothing. None is responsible for the health of an untouchable. On all these, the death of an untouchable is believed to purify the earth better. When this is the situation, there is no entry for an untouchable in the higher arts of civilization and no way is he open to a life of culture as that of a slave. This is why it is better to be a slave in an unfree social order than being an untouchable in a free social order.

JOB SKILLS

READING JOB ADVERTISEMENTS

Communication plays a vital role in job skills. LSRW is the sequence of language learning. A good listener speaks well and a good reader writes well. Nowadays graduates are eager to work and gain experience before pursuing higher studies. The first job after college is a foray into building a career. Job determines performance of given task for payment. It may be unrelated to studies. Career involves learning skills, gaining experience and knowledge. It states a person’s work life, salary, profile and progress. A career may or may not need formal education or special training. Profession refers to education and specialized training. A profession ensures a promising career like Doctors, lawyers, engineers, Professors. This chapter helps to prepare the student to begin the job search.

AIM

  • To develop students’ reading skills and enable them to understand important information in job adverts.
  • To expand students’ vocabulary related to work

Task -1
What are students’ experiences of finding a job?
What channels did they use -Placement cell, agencies, job ads in the newspapers, shop windows, job center etc.

Criteria for evaluating a job offer

Research your prospective employer
Salary, benefits and perks – leave, stock, incentives, insurance, profit sharing, transport, mobile, computer, additional perks like club membership, medical reimbursement, training programs
Savings and expenses- relocation, travel,
Career path- think carefully about long-term career prospects over salary and benefits.
Evaluate your job -objectively assess whether to consider the offer, negotiate further, or reject the offer
Check the company’s vision, values and principles

Task – 2

Test student’s knowledge of job profile:
For example, Where does a concierge work? Do you think it is a good job?
What is the job description of an accountant?
What does a business analyst do?

  • prepare, rewrite & edit material for publication in books, websites, and newspapers.
  • work on the shop floor and deal with staff and customers.
  • work in a bank. I collect customer’s grievances.
  • work in a hotel. I make room reservations.
  • receive payments and record information about cash transactions.

Task -3

Presenting new vocabulary
Share jargon about work and ask the students.
Some commonly used job listing usage: Collaborative cooperative, Creative/innovative – original, Deadline time, all the time, Entrepreneurial -pioneering, Go-getter initiative, Team player -relationship builder, Synergize cooperate,

Task -4

Show newspaper advert and ask what jobs are advertised.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes chapter 2 img 1

English Summary