## Envision Math Common Core 8th Grade Answers Key Topic 1 Real Numbers

**enVision STEM Project**

**Did You Know?**

Natural resources are materials that occur in nature, such as water, fossil fuels, wood, and minerals. Natural resources not only meet basic human needs, but also support industry and economy.

Minerals are used in the manufacturing of all types of common objects, including cell phones, computers, light bulbs, and medicines.

Water, oil, and forests are some of the natural resources that are in danger of someday being depleted.

70% of available fresh water is used in agriculture…

…and 10% for human consumption.

Each person in the United States needs over 48,000 pounds of minerals each year.

About 18 million acres of forest are lost to deforestation each year.

Solar power, wind power and other renewable energy sources are helping to lessen the dependency on oil and fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels are expected to supply almost 80% of world energy use through 2040.

**Your Task: Going, Going, Gone?**

Natural resource depletion is an important issue facing the world. Suppose a natural resource is being depleted at the rate of 1.333% per year. If there were 300 million tons of this resource in 2005, and there are no new discoveries, how much will be left in the year 2045? You and your classmates will explore the depletion of this resource over time.

Answer:

It is given that

A natural resource is being depleted at the rate of 1.333% per year and there were 300 million tons of this resource in 2005, and there are no new discoveries

So,

The number of resources left in 2045 = The number of resources present in 2005 – The decrease of the number of resources from 2005 to 2045

So,

The number of resources left in 2045 = 300 million – 1.33% of 300 million × (2045 – 2005)

The number of resources left in 2045 = 300 million – 159.6 million

The number of resources left in 2045 = 140.4 million

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the number of resources left in 2045 is: 140.4 million

### Topic 1 GET READY!

**Review What You Know!**

**Vocabulary**

Choose the best term from the box. Write it on the blank.

Question 1.

A(n) ____ is a decimal that ends in repeating zeros.

Answer:

A “Terminating decimal” is a decimal that ends in repeating zeros

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the best term from the box for this definition is “Terminating decimal”

Question 2.

A(n) ____ is a decimal in which a digit or digits repeat

Answer:

A “Repeating decimal” is a decimal in which a digit or digits repeat

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the best term from the box for this definition is “Repeating decimal”

Question 3.

A(n) ____ is either a counting number, the opposite of a counting number, or zero

Answer:

An “Integer” is either a counting number, the opposite of a counting number, or zero

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the best term from the box for this definition is “Integer”

Question 4.

A(n) ___ is a number that can be used to describe a part of a whole, a part of a set, a location on a number line, or a division of whole numbers.

Answer:

A “Fraction” is a number that can be used to describe a part of a whole, a part of a set, a location on a number line, or a division of whole numbers.

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the best term from the box for this definition is “Fraction”

**Terminating and Repeating Decimals**

Determine whether each decimal is terminating or repeating.

Question 5.

5.692

Answer:

The given decimal is: 5.692

We know that,

A terminating decimal is usually defined as a decimal number that contains a finite number of digits after the decimal point

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a terminating decimal

Question 6.

-0.222222…

Answer:

The given decimal is -0.222222….

We know that,

A repeating decimal or recurring decimal is the decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a repeating decimal

Question 7.

7.0001

Answer:

The given decimal is: 7.0001

We know that,

A terminating decimal is usually defined as a decimal number that contains a finite number of digits after the decimal point

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a terminating decimal

Question 8.

7.2\(\overline{8}\)

Answer:

The given decimal is: 7.2\(\overline{8}\)

We know that,

A repeating decimal or recurring decimal is the decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a repeating decimal

Question 9.

1.\(\overline{178}\)

Answer:

The given decimal is: 1.\(\overline{178}\)

We know that,

A repeating decimal or recurring decimal is the decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a repeating decimal

Question 10.

-4.03479

Answer:

The given decimal is: -4.03479

We know that,

A terminating decimal is usually defined as a decimal number that contains a finite number of digits after the decimal point

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given decimal is a terminating decimal

**Multiplying Integers**

Find each product.

Question 11.

2.2

Answer:

The given expression is: 2 × 2

Hence,

2 × 2 = 4

Question 12.

-5. (-5)

Answer:

The given expression is: -5 × -5

We know that,

– × – = +

Hence,

-5 × -5 = 25

Question 13.

7.7

Answer:

The given expression is: 7 × 7

Hence,

7 × 7 = 49

Question 14.

-6 ∙ (-6) ∙ (-6)

Answer:

The given expression is: -6 × -6 × -6

We know that,

– × – × –

= + × –

= –

Hence,

-6 × -6 × -6

= 36 × -6

= -216

Question 15.

10 ∙ 10 ∙ 10

Answer:

The given expression is: 10 × 10 × 10

Hence,

10 × 10 × 10 = 1,000

Question 16.

-9 ∙ (-9) ∙ (-9)

Answer:

The given expression is: -9 × -9 × -9

We know that,

– × – × –

= + × –

= –

Hence,

-9 × -9 × -9

= 81 × -9

= -729

**Simplifying Expressions**

Simplify each expression.

Question 17.

(4 ∙ 10) + (5 ∙ 100)

Answer:

The given expression is:

(4 × 10) + (5 × 100)

So,

(4 × 10) + (5 × 100)

= 40 + 500

= 540

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the expression is: 540

Question 18.

(2100) + (7.10)

Answer:

The given expression is:

2100 + (7 × 10)

So,

2100 + (7 × 10)

= 2100 + 70

= 2170

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given expression is: 2170

Question 19.

(6 · 100) – (1 · 10)

Answer:

The given expression is:

(6 × 100) – (1 × 10)

So,

(6 × 100) – (1 × 10)

= 600 – 10

= 590

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given expression is: 590

Question 20.

(9 ∙ 1,000) + (4 ∙ 10)

Answer:

The given expression is:

(9 × 1,000) + (4 × 10)

So,

(9 × 1,000) + (4 × 10)

= 9,000 + 40

= 9,040

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given expression is: 9,040

Question 21.

(3 · 1,000) – (2 ∙ 100)

Answer:

The given expression is:

(3 × 1,000) – (2 × 100)

So,

(3 × 1,000) – (2 × 100)

= 3,000 – 200

= 2,800

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given expression is: 2,800

Question 22.

(2 ∙ 10) + (7 · 100)

Answer:

The given expression is:

(2 × 10) + (7 × 100)

So,

(2 × 10) + (7 × 100)

= 20 + 700

= 720

Hence, from the above,

we can conclude that the value of the given expression is: 720

Language Development

Fill in the word map with new terms, definitions, and supporting examples or illustrations.

### Topic 1 PICK A PROJECT

**PROJECT 1A**

Who is your favorite poet, and why?

PROJECT: WRITE A POEM

**PROJECT 1B**

If you moved to a tiny house, what would you bring with you?

PROJECT: DESIGN A TINY HOUSE

**PROJECT 1C**

If you could travel anywhere in space, where would you go?

PROJECT: PLAN A TOUR OF THE MILKY WAY

**PROJECT 1D**

Why do you think people tell stories around a campfire?

PROJECT: TELL A FOLK STORY

Lesson 1.1 Rational Numbers as Decimals

**Solve & Discuss It!**

Jaylon has a wrench labeled 0.1875 inches and bolts labeled in fractions of an inch. Which size bolt will fit best with the wrench? Explain.

Answer:

It is given that

Jaylon has a wrench labeled 0.1875 inches and bolts labeled in fractions of an inch.

Now,

We know that,

The bolt will be fit in a wrench only when

The size of the bolt (inches) = The size of the wrench (inches)

Now,

The representation of the bolts in the decimal numbers is:

\(\frac{3}{8}\) = 0.375 inches

\(\frac{1}{8}\) = 0.046 inches

\(\frac{3}{16}\) = 0.1875 inches

\(\frac{1}{4}\) = 0.25 inches

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the bolt which has the size \(\frac{3}{16}\) inches will fit best with the wrench

**Reasoning**

How can you write these numbers in the same form?

Answer:

The representation of the sizes of bolts in the decimal form is by using the properties of place values

We know that,

A terminating decimal can be written as a fraction by using properties of place value.

Example:

3.75 = three and seventy-five hundredths or \(\frac{375}{100}\), which is equal to the improper fraction

**Focus on math practices**

Reasoning Why is it useful to write a rational number as a fraction or as a decimal?

Answer:

Rational numbers are whole numbers, fractions, and decimals – the numbers we use in our daily lives. They can be written as a ratio of two integers. … The definition says that a number is rational if you can write it in the form \(\frac{a}{b}\) where a and b are integers, and b is not zero.

**? Essential Question**

How can you write repeating decimals as fractions?

Answer:

Because repeating decimals are rational numbers, you can write them in fraction form.

STEP 1

Assign a variable to represent the repeating decimal.

STEP 2

Write an equation: variable = decimal.

STEP 3

Multiply each side of the equation by 10^{d}, where d is the number of repeating digits in the repeating decimal.

STEP 4

Subtract equivalent expressions of the variable and the repeating decimal from each side of the equation.

STEP 5

Solve for the variable. Write an equivalent fraction so that the numerator and denominator are integers, if necessary.

**Try It!**

In another baseball division, one team had a winning percentage of 0.444…. What fraction of their games did this team win?

The team won their games.

Answer:

It is given that

In another baseball division, one team had a winning percentage of 0.444…

Since only 1 number is repeated,

The repeating decimal can be written as 0.\(\overline{4}\)

Now,

According to the steps of converting a repeating decimal to a fraction (Essential Question),

Step 1:

Let x = 0.\(\overline{4}\)

Step 2:

Multiply with 10 on both sides since only 1 number is repeating

So,

10x = 10 (0.\(\overline{4}\))

10x = 4.\(\overline{4}\)

Step 3:

10x – x = 4.\(\overline{4}\) – 0.\(\overline{4}\)

9x = 4

x = \(\frac{4}{9}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the team won \(\frac{4}{9}\) of their games

**Convince Me!**

How do you know what power of ten to multiply by in the second step at the right?

Answer:

Let x be the repeating portion.

Multiply this equation by a power of 10 to move the repeating digits immediately to the left of the decimal point (in other words, to eliminate any zeros preceding the repeating digits).

**Try It!**

Write the repeating decimal 0.63333… as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is: 0.6333333

Now,

According to the steps of converting a repeating decimal to a fraction (Essential Question),

Step 1:

Let x = 0.6\(\overline{3}\)

Step 2:

Multiply with 10 on both sides since only 1 number is repeating

So,

10x = 10 (0.6\(\overline{3}\))

10x = 6.\(\overline{3}\)

Step 3:

10x – x = 6.\(\overline{3}\) – 0.6\(\overline{3}\)

9x = 6.33 – 0.63

9x = 5.7

Divide by 9 into both sides

So,

\(\frac{9}{9}\)x = \(\frac{5.7}{9}\)

x = \(\frac{57}{90}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{57}{90}\)

**Try It!**

Write the repeating decimal 4.1363636… as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 4.1363636…..

Now,

According to the steps of converting a repeating decimal to a fraction (Essential Question),

Step 1:

Let x = 4.1\(\overline{36}\)

Step 2:

Multiply with 100 on both sides since 2 numbers are repeating

So,

100x = 100 (4.1\(\overline{36}\))

100x = 41.\(\overline{36}\)

Step 3:

100x – x = 41.\(\overline{36}\) – 4.1\(\overline{36}\)

99x = 413.636 – 4.136

99x = 409.5

Divide by 99 into both sides

So,

\(\frac{99}{99}\)x = \(\frac{409.5}{99}\)

x = \(\frac{4095}{990}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{4095}{990}\)

**KEY CONCEPT**

Because repeating decimals are rational numbers, you can write them in fraction form.

**STEP 1**

Assign a variable to represent the repeating decimal.

**STEP 2**

Write an equation: variable = decimal.

**STEP 3**

Multiply each side of the equation by 10^{d}, where d is the number of repeating digits in the repeating decimal.

**STEP 4**

Subtract equivalent expressions of the variable and the repeating decimal from each side of the equation.

**STEP 5**

Solve for the variable. Write an equivalent fraction so that the numerator and denominator are integers, if necessary.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question**

How can you write repeating decimals as fractions?

Answer:

Because repeating decimals are rational numbers, you can write them in fraction form.

STEP 1

Assign a variable to represent the repeating decimal.

STEP 2

Write an equation: variable = decimal.

STEP 3

Multiply each side of the equation by 10^{d}, where d is the number of repeating digits in the repeating decimal.

STEP 4

Subtract equivalent expressions of the variable and the repeating decimal from each side of the equation.

STEP 5

Solve for the variable. Write an equivalent fraction so that the numerator and denominator are integers, if necessary.

Question 2.

**Use Structure** Why do you multiply by a power of 10 when writing a repeating decimal as a rational number?

Answer:

The idea is to multiply by some number (10, 100, 1000, etc.) so that when we subtract the original number from the multiple, the repeating part cancels out.

Question 3.

**Be Precise** How do you decide by which power of 10 to multiply an equation when writing a decimal with repeating digits as a fraction?

Answer:

The idea is to multiply by some number (10, 100, 1000, etc.) so that when we subtract the original number from the multiple, the repeating part cancels out.

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

A survey reported that 63.63% of moviegoers prefer action films. This percent represents a repeating decimal. Write it as a fraction.

Answer:

It is given that

A survey reported that 63.63% of moviegoers prefer action films. This percent represents a repeating decimal

So,

The given repeating decimal is 63.6363…..%

Now,

According to the steps of converting a repeating decimal to a fraction (Essential Question),

Step 1:

Let x = 63.\(\overline{63}\)

Step 2:

Multiply with 100 on both sides since 2 numbers are repeating

So,

100x = 100 (63.\(\overline{63}\))

100x = 6363.\(\overline{63}\)

Step 3:

100x – x = 6363.\(\overline{63}\) – 63.\(\overline{63}\)

99x = 6,300

Divide by 99 into both sides

So,

\(\frac{99}{99}\)x = \(\frac{6,300}{99}\)

x = \(\frac{6,300}{99}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{6,300}{99}\)

Question 5.

A student estimates the weight of astronauts on the Moon by multiplying their weight by the decimal 0.16666… What fraction can be used for the same estimation?

Answer:

It is given that

A student estimates the weight of astronauts on the Moon by multiplying their weight by the decimal 0.16666…

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the fraction that can be used for the same estimation is: \(\frac{1}{6}\)

Question 6.

Write 2.3181818… as a mixed number.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 2.3181818…

Now,

According to the steps of converting a repeating decimal to a fraction (Essential Question),

Step 1:

Let x = 2.3\(\overline{18}\)

Step 2:

Multiply with 100 on both sides since 2 numbers are repeating

So,

100x = 100 (2.3\(\overline{18}\))

100x = 23.\(\overline{18}\)

Step 3:

100x – x = 23.\(\overline{18}\) – 2.3\(\overline{18}\)

99x = 231.818 – 2.318

99x = 229.5

Divide by 99 into both sides

So,

\(\frac{99}{99}\)x = \(\frac{229.5}{99}\)

x = \(\frac{2295}{990}\)

x = \(\frac{51}{22}\)

So,

The representation of the above fraction in the mixed form is: 2\(\frac{7}{22}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the given repeating decimal in the mixed fraction form is: 2\(\frac{7}{22}\)

**Practice & Problem Solving**

Leveled Practice In 7 and 8, write the decimal as a fraction or mixed number.

Question 7.

Write the number 0.21212121… as a fraction.

Let x =

100x =

100x – x = –

99x =

x =

So 0.2121… is equal to

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is: 0.212121….

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the value of the repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{21}{99}\)

Question 8.

Write 3.7 as a mixed number.

Let x =

10x =

9x =

x =

So 3.\(\overline{7}\) is equal to

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is: 3.\(\overline{7}\)

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the given repeating decimal in the mixed fraction form is: 3\(\frac{7}{9}\)

Question 9.

Write the number shown on the scale as a fraction.

Answer

The number that is shown on the scale is: 0.233333

Now,

From the: above number,

We can observe that the number is a repeating decimal

Now,

So,

The simplified form of \(\frac{2.1}{9}\) is: \(\frac{7}{30}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the number that is shown on the scale as a fraction is: \(\frac{7}{30}\)

Question 10.

Tomas asked 15 students whether summer break should be longer. He used his calculator to divide the number of students who said yes by the total number of students. His calculator showed the result as 0.9333…

a. Write this number as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 0.93333…

Now,

So,

The simplified form of \(\frac{8.4}{9}\) is: \(\frac{14}{15}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the repeating number in the form of the fraction is: \(\frac{14}{15}\)

b. How many students said that summer break should be longer?

Answer:

It is given that

Tomas asked 15 students whether summer break should be longer. He used his calculator to divide the number of students who said yes by the total number of students.

So,

The number of students that said summer break should be longer = \(\frac{The number of students that said yes that summer break is longer}{The total number of students}

Now,

From part (a),

The fraction form of his calculated result from part (a) is: 14 / 15

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the number of students that said the summer break should be longer is: 14 students

Question 11.

Write 0.[latex]\overline{87}\) as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 0.\(\overline{87}\)

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the repeating decimal in the fraction form in the simplest form is: \(\frac{29}{33}\)

Question 12.

Write 0.\(\overline{8}\) as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 0.\(\overline{8}\)

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the given repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{8}{9}\)

Question 13.

Write 1.\(\overline{48}\) as a mixed number.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal number is 1.\(\overline{48}\)

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the given repeating decimal in the mixed fraction form is: 1\(\frac{16}{33}\)

Question 14.

Write 0.\(\overline{6}\) as a fraction.

Answer:

The given repeating decimal is 0.\(\overline{6}\)

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the representation of the given repeating decimal in the fraction form is: \(\frac{2}{3}\)

Question 15.

A manufacturer determines that the cost of making a computer component is $2.161616. Write the cost as a fraction and as a mixed number.

Answer:

It is given that

A manufacturer determines that the cost of making a computer component is $2.161616

So,

The given repeating decimal is 2.161616…

Now,

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that

The cost of a computer component in a fraction form is: \(\frac{214}{99}\)

The cost of a computer component in a mixed fraction form is: 2\(\frac{16}{99}\)

Question 16.

**Reasoning** When writing a repeating decimal as a fraction, does the number of repeating digits you use matter? Explain.

Answer:

No. Even if the number of different digits in the cycle is 1 or 1 million, the method of finding the fraction is the same

Question 17.

**Higher Order Thinking** When writing a repeating decimal as a fraction, why does the fraction always have only 9s or 9s and 0s as digits in the denominator?

Answer:

When writing a repeating decimal as a fraction, the fraction always has only 9s or 9s and 0s as digits in the denominator because we are talking here about a geometric series and they are decimals, so the right side i.e., after the decimal point, the digits are in tenths, hundredths and so on

**Assessment Practice**

Question 18.

Which decimal is equivalent to \(\frac{188}{11}\)?

A. 17.\(\overline{09}\)

B. 17.0\(\overline{09}\)

C. 17.\(\overline{1709}\)

D. 17.\(\overline{1709}\)0

Answer:

The given fraction is: \(\frac{188}{11}\)

So,

The representation of the given fraction in the decimal form is:

we know that,

\(\frac{1}{11}\) = 0.090909…..

So,

\(\frac{188}{11}\) = 17.090909….

= 17.\(\overline{09}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that option A matches the representation of the repeating decimal for the given fraction

Question 19.

Choose the repeating decimal that is equal to the fraction on the left.

Answer:

Follow the process that is mentioned below to solve the given repeating decimals in the fraction form

Now,

STEP 1

Assign a variable to represent the repeating decimal.

STEP 2

Write an equation: variable = decimal.

STEP 3

Multiply each side of the equation by 10^{d}, where d is the number of repeating digits in the repeating decimal.

STEP 4

Subtract equivalent expressions of the variable and the repeating decimal from each side of the equation.

STEP 5

Solve for the variable. Write an equivalent fraction so that the numerator and denominator are integers, if necessary.

Hence,

### Lesson 1.2 Understand Irrational Numbers

**Explain It!**

Sofia wrote a decimal as a fraction. Her classmate Nora says that her method and answer are not correct. Sofia disagrees and says that this is the method she learned.

A. **Construct Arguments** Is Nora or Sofia correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

The given number is 0.121121112111112…..

Now,

From the given number,

We can observe that the given decimal is not a repeating decimal because there are other numbers other than the repeating numbers in the given decimal or a terminating decimal because the decimal is not finite

So,

Since the given decimal is not a repeating decimal,

The method that we used to convert the repeating decimal into a fraction is not applicable

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that Nora is correct

B. **Use Structure** What is a nonterminating decimal number that can not be written as a fraction.

Answer:

A non-terminating, non-repeating decimal is a decimal number that continues endlessly, with no group of digits repeating endlessly. Decimals of this type cannot be represented as fractions, and as a result, are irrational numbers

**Focus on math practices**

Construct Arguments is 0.12112111211112… a rational number? Explain.

Answer:

0.12112111211112… can’t be represented in the form of \(\frac{p}{q}\) and it has non terminating non-repeating decimal expansion

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that 0.12112111211112… is not a rational number

**? Essential Question**

How is an irrational number different from a rational number?

Answer:

Numbers that can be expressed in \(\frac{a}{b}\) or fraction form are rational numbers where a is an integer and b is a non-zero integer and the irrational numbers are the numbers that cannot be written in \(\frac{a}{b}\) form

**Try It!**

Classify each number as rational or irrational.

Answer:

The given numbers are:

Now,

We know that,

Numbers that can be expressed in \(\frac{a}{b}\) or fraction form are rational numbers where a is an integer and b is a non-zero integer and the irrational numbers are the numbers that cannot be written in \(\frac{a}{b}\) form

Hence,

The representation of the rational and irrational numbers are:

**Convince Me!**

Construct Arguments Jen classifies the number 4.567 as irrational because it does not repeat. Is Jen correct? Explain.

Answer:

The given decimal is: 4.567

We know that,

A rational number is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

A terminating decimal has the finite number of digits without repeating and it is also a rational number

So,

We can observe that we can write 4.567 as a rational number

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that Jen is not correct

**Try It!**

Classify each number as rational or irrational and explain.

A) \(\frac{2}{3}\)

B) \(\sqrt{25}\)

C) -0.7\(\overline{5}\)

D) \(\sqrt{2}\)

E) 7,548,123

Answer:

The given numbers are:

A) \(\frac{2}{3}\)

B) \(\sqrt{25}\)

C) -0.7\(\overline{5}\)

D) \(\sqrt{2}\)

E) 7,548,123

Now,

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Terminating decimals, perfect squares, etc

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Non-terminating decimals

So,

From the given numbers,

Rational numbers ——> A, B, E

Irrational numbers ——> C, D

**KEY CONCEPT**

Numbers that are not rational are called irrational numbers.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question** How is an irrational number different from a rational number?

Answer:

Numbers that can be expressed in \(\frac{a}{b}\) or fraction form are rational numbers where a is an integer and b is a non-zero integer and the irrational numbers are the numbers that cannot be written in \(\frac{a}{b}\) form

Question 2.

**Reasoning** How can you tell whether a square root of a whole number is rational or irrational?

Answer:

If the square root of an integer is itself an integer (Ex: √4 = 2), then by definition it is rational – If the square root is not an integer (Ex: √2 = 1.41414…), then it must be irrational. Put another way the only integers for which the square root of an integer can be rational is if is a perfect square – that is where x is an integer

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** Could a number ever be both rational and irrational? Explain.

Answer:

No. A rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient of two integers. An irrational number is a number that cannot be expressed as a quotient of two integers. So if a number is either rational or irrational, it cannot also be the other.

Do You Know How?

Question 4.

Is the number 65.4349224… rational or irrational? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is 65.4349224…

From the given number,

We can observe that the given number is a non-repeating and non-terminating decimal number

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given number is an irrational number

Question 5.

Is the number \(\sqrt{2,500}\) rational or irrational? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is: \(\sqrt{2,500}\)

We know that,

A perfect square number is a rational number

So,

\(\sqrt{2,500}\) = 50

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given number is a rational number

Question 6.

Classify each number as rational or irrational.

Answer:

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Perfect squares

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Non-terminating decimal numbers

Hence,

The representation of the rational and irrational numbers from the given numbers are:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

Question 7.

Is 5.787787778… a rational or irrational number? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is 5.787787778…

From the given number,

We can observe that the given number is a non-repeating and non-terminating decimal number

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given number is an irrational number

Question 8.

Is \(\sqrt{42}\) rational or irrational? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is \(\sqrt{42}\)

From the given number,

We can observe that the given number is not a perfect square

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given number is an irrational number

Question 9.

A teacher places seven cards, lettered A-G, on a table. Which cards show irrational numbers?

Answer:

The given cards are:

We know that,

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that from the given cards,

The irrational numbers are:

A) π

B) 8.25635…,

C) 6.\(\overline{31}\)

Question 10.

Circle the irrational number in the list below.

A) 7.\(\overline{27}\)

B) \(\frac{5}{9}\)

C) \(\sqrt{15}\)

D) \(\sqrt{196}\)

Answer:

The given numbers are:

A) 7.\(\overline{27}\)

B) \(\frac{5}{9}\)

C) \(\sqrt{15}\)

D) \(\sqrt{196}\)

Now,

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Perfect squares

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Non-terminating decimal numbers

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that

From the given numbers,

The irrational numbers are A) and C)

Question 11.

Lisa writes the following list of numbers.

5.737737773…, 26, \(\sqrt{45}\), –\(\frac{3}{2}\), 0, 9

Answer:

The given numbers are:

A) 5.7377377737… B) 26 C) \(\sqrt{45}\)

D) –\(\frac{3}{2}\) E) 0 F) 9

Now,

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Perfect squares

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Non-terminating decimal numbers

a. Which numbers are rational?

Answer:

From the given numbers,

The rational numbers are: B, D, E, and F

b. Which numbers are irrational?

Answer:

From the given numbers,

The irrational numbers are: A and C

Question 12.

**Construct Arguments** Deena says that 9.565565556… is a rational number because it has a repeating pattern. Do you agree? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is 9.565565556…

From the given number,

We can observe that the number is a non-repeating and a non-terminating decimal

So,

The given number is an irrational number

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that we don’t have to agree with Deena

Question 13.

Is \(\sqrt{1,815}\) rational? Explain.

Answer:

The given number is: \(\sqrt{1,815}\)

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Ex: Perfect squares

Now,

From the given square root,

We can observe that it won’t form a perfect square

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the given number is an irrational number

Question 14.

Is the decimal form of \(\frac{13}{3}\) Explain.

Answer:

The given number is: \(\frac{13}{3}\)

We know that,

\(\frac{13}{3}\) = 4.3333…..

We know that,

An “Irrational number” is a number that can not be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the decimal form of \(\frac{13}{3}\) is an irrational number

Question 15.

Write the side length of the square rug as a square root. Is the side length a rational or irrational number? Explain.

Answer:

The given figure is:

From the given figure,

We can observe that the given figure depicts the shape of a square

Now,

Let the side length of a square be x

We know that,

Area = (Side length)²

x² = 100

x = \(\sqrt{100}\)

We know that,

A “Perfect square” is a rational number

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that a side length is a rational number

Question 16.

**Reasoning** The numbers 2.888… and 2.999… are both rational numbers. What is an irrational number that is between the two rational numbers?

Answer:

A rational number is a number which is can be represented as the quotient of two numbers without having any remainder i.e., having remainder 0. For example 2.45, 2, 3 etc.

An irrational number has a non-zero remainder and has a nonterminating quotient.

Hence,

The numbers between 2.888… and 2.999… are 2.8889………, 2.8890…….., 2.8891…… etc

Question 17.

**Higher Order Thinking** You are given the expressions \(\sqrt{76+n}\) and \(\sqrt{2 n+26}\). What is the smallest value of n that will make each number rational?

Answer:

The given expressions are: \(\sqrt{76+n}\) and \(\sqrt{2 n+26}\)

Now,

To find the smallest value of n so that each expression will be a rational number,

\(\sqrt{76+n}\) = \(\sqrt{2 n+26}\)

Squaring on both sides

So,

76 + n = 2n + 26

2n – n = 76 – 26

n = 50

Hence, from the above,

We can conclude that the smallest value of n so that the given expressions will become a rational number is: 5

**Assessment Practice**

Question 18.

Which numbers are rational?

I. 1.1111111…

II. 1.567

III. 1.101101110…

A. II and III

B. III only

C. II only

D. I and II

E I only

F. None of the above

Answer:

The given numbers are:

I. 1.1111111…

II. 1.567

III. 1.101101110…

We know that,

A “Rational number” is a number that can be written in the form of \(\frac{a}{b}\)

So,

From the given numbers,

1 and 2 are the rational numbers

Hence, from the above,

we can conclude that option D matches with the given situation

Question 19.

Determine whether the following numbers are rational or irrational.

Answer:

The representation of the given numbers as rational and irrational numbers is:

### Lesson 1.3 Compare and Order Real Numbers

**Solve & Discuss It!**

Courtney and Malik are buying a rug to fit in a 50-square-foot space. Which rug should they purchase? Explain.

**Focus on math practices**

**Make Sense and Persevere** How did you decide which rug Courtney and Malik should purchase?

**?Essential Question**

How can you compare and order rational and irrational numbers?

**Try It!**

Between which two whole numbers is \(\sqrt{12}\)?

**Convince Me!**

Which of the two numbers is a better estimate for \(\sqrt{12}\)? Explain.

**Try It!**

Compare and order the following numbers:

\(\sqrt{11}\), 2\(\frac{1}{4}\), -2.5, 3.\(\overline{6}\), -3.97621 …

**KEY CONCEPT**

To compare rational and irrational numbers, you must first find rational approximations of the irrational numbers. You can approximate irrational numbers using perfect squares or by rounding.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question **How can you compare and order rational and irrational numbers?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Reasoning**

The “leech” is a technical term for the slanted edge of a sail. Is the length of the leech shown closer to 5 meters or 6 meters? Explain.

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** which is a better approximation of \(\sqrt{20}\), 4.5 or 4.47? Explain.

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

Approximate \(\sqrt{39}\) to the nearest whole number.

Answer:

Question 5.

Approximate \(\sqrt{18}\) to the nearest tenth and plot the number on a number line.

Answer:

Question 6.

Compare 5.7145… and \(\sqrt{29}\). Show your work.

Answer:

Question 7.

Compare and order the following numbers

5.2, -5.\(\overline{6}\), 3\(\frac{9}{10}\), \(\sqrt{21}\)

**Practice & Problem Solving**

Question 8.

Leveled Practice Find the rational approximation of \(\sqrt{15}\).

a. Approximate using perfect squares.

< 15 <

= < \(\sqrt{15}\) <

< \(\sqrt{15}\) <

b. Locate and plot \(\sqrt{15}\) on a number line. Find a better approximation using decimals.

Question 9.

Compare – 1.96312… and –\(\sqrt{5}\). Show your work.

Answer:

Question 10.

Does \(\frac{1}{6}\), -3, \(\sqrt{7}\), –\(\frac{6}{5}\), or 4.5 come first when the numbers are listed from least to greatest? Explain.

Answer:

Question 11.

A museum director wants to hang the painting on a wall. To the nearest foot, how tall does the wall need to be?

Answer:

Question 12.

Dina has several small clay pots. She wants to display them in order of height, from shortest to tallest. What will be the order of the pots?

Answer:

Question 13.

Rosie is comparing \(\sqrt{7}\) and 3.44444…. She says that \(\sqrt{7}\) > 3.44444… because \(\sqrt{7}\) = 3.5.

a. What is the correct comparison?

b. **Critique Reasoning** What mistake did Rosie likely make?

Answer:

Question 14.

**Model with Math** Approximate – 23 to the nearest tenth. Draw the point on the number line.

Answer:

Question 15.

**Higher Order Thinking** The length of a rectangle is twice the width. The area of the rectangle is 90 square units. Note that you can divide the rectangle into two squares.

a. Which irrational number represents the length of each side of the squares?

b. Estimate the length and width of the rectangle.

Answer:

Assessment Practice

Question 16.

Which list shows the numbers in order from least to greatest?

A. -4, –\(\frac{9}{4}\), \(\frac{1}{2}\), 3.7, \(\sqrt{5}\)

B. -4, –\(\frac{9}{4}\), \(\frac{1}{2}\), \(\sqrt{5}\), 3.7

C. –\(\frac{9}{4}\), \(\frac{1}{2}\), 3.7, \(\sqrt{5}\), -4

D. –\(\frac{9}{4}\), -4, \(\frac{1}{2}\), 3.7, \(\sqrt{5}\)

Answer:

Question 17.

The area of a square poster is 31 square inches. Find the length of one side of the poster. Explain.

**PART A**

To the nearest whole inch

**PART B**

To the nearest tenth of an inch

Answer:

### Lesson 1.4 Evaluate Square Roots and Cube Roots

**Solve & Discuss It!**

**ACTIVITY**

Matt and his dad are building a tree house. They buy enough flooring material to cover an area of 36 square feet. What are all possible dimensions of the floor?

**Look for Relationships**

Can different floor dimensions result in the same area?

**Focus on math practices**

**Reasoning** Why is there only one set of dimensions for a square floor when there are more sets for a rectangular floor? Are all the dimensions reasonable? Explain.

**? Essential Question**

How do you evaluate cube roots and square roots?

**Try It!**

A cube-shaped art sculpture has a volume of 64 cubic feet. What is the length of each edge of the cube?

The length of each edge is feet.

**Convince Me!**

How can you find the cube root of 64?

**Try It!**

Evaluate.

a. \(\sqrt[3]{27}\)

b. \(\sqrt{25}\)

c. \(\sqrt{81}\)

d. \(\sqrt[3]{1}\)

**Try It!**

Emily wants to buy a tablecloth to cover a square card table. She knows the tabletop has an area of 9 square feet. What are the minimum dimensions of the tablecloth Emily needs?

Emily should buy a tablecloth that measures at least

feet by feet.

**KEY CONCEPT**

The cube root of a number is a number whose cube is equal to that number.

Cubing a number and taking the cube root of the number are inverse operations.

The square root of a number is a number whose square is equal to that number.

Squaring a number and taking the square root of the number are inverse operations.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question** How do you evaluate cube roots and square roots?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Generalize** A certain number is both a perfect square and a perfect cube. Will its square root and its cube root always be different numbers? Explain.

Answer:

Question 3.

**Critique Reasoning** A cube-shaped box has a volume of 27 cubic inches. Bethany says each side of the cube measures 9 inches because 9 × 3 = 27. Is Bethany correct? Explain your reasoning.

Answer:

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

A cube has a volume of 8 cubic inches. What is the length of each edge of the cube?

Answer:

Question 5.

Below is a model of the infield of a baseball stadium. How long is each side of the infield?

Answer:

Question 6.

Julio cubes a number and then takes the cube root of the result. He ends up with 20. What number did Julio start with?

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

**Leveled Practice** In 7 and 8, evaluate the cube root or square root.

Question 7.

Relate the volume of the cube to the length

Answer:

Question 8.

Relate the area of the square to the length of each edge.

Answer:

Question 9.

Would you classify the number 169 as a perfect square, a perfect cube, both, or neither? Explain.

Answer:

Question 10.

The volume of a cube is 512 cubic inches. What is the length of each side of the cube?

Answer:

Question 11.

A square technology chip has an area of 25 square centimeters. How long is each side of the chip?

Answer:

Question 12.

Would you classify the number 200 as a perfect square, a perfect cube, both, or neither? Explain.

Answer:

Question 13.

A company is making building blocks. What is the length of each side of the block?

Answer:

Question 14.

Mrs. Drew wants to build a square sandbox with an area of 121 square feet. What is the total length of wood Mrs. Drew needs to make the sides of the sandbox?

Question 15.

**Construct Arguments** Diego says that if you cube the number 4 and then take the cube root of the result, you end up with 8. Is Diego correct? Explain.

Answer:

Question 16.

**Higher Order Thinking** Talia is packing a moving box. She has a square-framed poster with an area of 9 square feet. The cube-shaped box has a volume of 30 cubic feet. Will the poster lie flat in the box? Explain.

Answer:

**Assessment Practice**

Question 17.

Which expression has the greatest value?

A. \(\sqrt{49}\) . 2

B. \(\sqrt{49}\) – \(\sqrt{16}\)

C. \(\sqrt{25}\) + \(\sqrt{16}\)

D. \(\sqrt{25}\).3

Answer:

Question 18.

A toy has various shaped objects that a child can push through matching holes. The area of the square hole is 8 square centimeters. The volume of a cube-shaped block is 64 cubic centimeters.

**PART A**

Which edge length can you find? Explain.

**PART B**

Will the block fit in the square hole? Explain.

Answer:

### Lesson 1.5 Solve Equations Using Square Roots and Cube Roots

**Solve & Discuss It!**

Janine can use up to 150 one-inch blocks to build a solid, cube-shaped model. What are the dimensions of the possible models that she can build? How many blocks would Janine use for each model? Explain.

**Look for Relationships**

How are the dimensions of a solid related to its volume?

**Focus on math practices**

Reasoning Janine wants to build a model using \(\frac{1}{2}\)-inch cubes. How many \(\frac{1}{2}\)-inch cubes would she use to build a solid, cube-shaped model with side lengths of 4 inches? Show your work.

**? Essential Question**

How can you solve equations with squares and cubes?

**Try It!**

What is the side length, s, of the square below?

Each side of the square measures meters.

**Convince Me!**

Why are there two possible solutions to the equation s^{2} = 100? Explain why only one of the solutions is valid in this situation.

**Try It!**

Solve x^{3} = 64.

**Try It!**

a. Solve a^{3} = 11.

Answer:

b. Solve c^{2} = 27.

Answer:

**KEY CONCEPT**

You can use square roots to solve equations involving squares.

x^{2 } = a

\(\sqrt{x^{2}}\) = \(\sqrt{a}\)

x = + \(\sqrt{a}\), –\(\sqrt{a}\)

You can use cube roots to solve equations involving cubes. x2 = b Vx3 = xb

x^{3} = b

\(\sqrt[3]{x^{3}}\) = \(\sqrt[3]{b}\)

x = \(\sqrt[3]{b}\)

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question**

How can you solve equations with squares and cubes?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Be Precise** Suri solved the equation x^{2} = 49 and found that x = 7. What error did Suri make?

Answer:

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** There is an error in the work shown below. Explain the error and provide a correct solution.

x^{3} = 125

\(\sqrt[3]{x^{3}}\) = \(\sqrt[3]{125}\)

x = 5 and x = -5

Answer:

Question 4.

Why are the solutions to x^{2} = 17 irrational?

Answer:

Do You Know How?

Question 5.

If a cube has a volume of 27 cubic centimeters, what is the length of each edge? Use the volume formula, V = s^{3}, and show your work.

Answer:

Question 6.

Darius is building a square launch pad for a rocket project. If the area of the launch pad is 121 square centimeters, what is its side length? Use the area formula, A = s^{2}, and show your work.

Answer:

Question 7.

Solve the equation x^{3} = -215.

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

**Leveled Practice** In 8 and 9, solve.

Question 8.

z^{2} = 1

Answer:

Question 9.

a^{3} = 216

Answer:

Question 10.

Solve v^{2} = 47.

Answer:

Question 11.

The area of a square photo is 9 square inches. How long is each side of the photo?

Answer:

Question 12.

Solve the equation y^{2} = 81.

Answer:

Question 13.

Solve the equation w^{3} = 1,000.

Answer:

Question 14.

The area of a square garden is shown. How long is each side of the garden?

Answer:

Question 15.

Solve b^{2} = 77.

Answer:

Question 16.

Find the value of c in the equation c^{3} = 1,728.

Answer:

Question 17.

Solve the equation v^{3} = 12.

Answer:

Question 18.

**Higher Order Thinking** Explain why

\(\sqrt[3]{-\frac{8}{27}}\) is –\(\frac{2}{3}\)

Answer:

Question 19.

**Critique Reasoning** Manolo says that the solution of the equation g^{2} = 36 is g = 6 because 6 × 6 = 36. Is Manolo’s reasoning complete? Explain.

Answer:

Question 20.

Evaluate \(\sqrt[3]{-512}\).

a. Write your answer as an integer.

b. Explain how you can check that your result is correct.

Answer:

Question 21.

Yael has a square-shaped garage with 228 square feet of floor space. She plans to build an addition that will increase the floor space by 50%. What will be the length, to the nearest tenth, of one side of the new garage?

Answer:

**Assessment Practice**

Question 22.

The Traverses are adding a new room to their house. The room will be a cube with a volume of 6,859 cubic feet. They are going to put in hardwood floors, which costs $10 per square foot. How much will the hardwood floors cost?

Answer:

Question 23.

While packing for their cross-country move, the Chen family uses a crate that has the shape of a cube.

**PART A**

If the crate has the volume V = 64 cubic feet, what is the length of one edge?

**PART B**

The Chens want to pack a large, framed painting. If the framed painting has the shape of a square with an area of 12 square feet, will the painting fit flat against a side of the crate? Explain.

Answer:

### Topic 1 MID-TOPIC CHECKPOINT

Question 1.

**Vocabulary** How can you show that a number is a rational number? Lesson 1.2

Answer:

Question 2.

Which shows 0.2\(\overline{3}\) as a fraction? Lesson 1.1

A. \(\frac{2}{33}\)

B. \(\frac{7}{33}\)

C. \(\frac{23}{99}\)

D. \(\frac{7}{30}\)

Answer:

Question 3.

Approximate \(\sqrt{8}\) to the nearest hundredth. Show your work. Lesson 1.3

Answer:

Question 4.

Solve the equation m^{2} = 14. Lesson 1.5

Answer:

Question 5.

A fish tank is in the shape of a cube. Its volume is 125 ft^{3}. What is the area of one face of the tank? Lessons 1.4 and 1.5

Answer:

Question 6.

Write 1.\(\overline{12}\) as a mixed number. Show your work. Lesson 1.1

How well did you do on the mid-topic checkpoint? Fill in the stars.

Answer:

### Topic 1 MID-TOPIC PERFORMANCE TASK

Six members of the math club are forming two teams for a contest. The teams will be determined by having each student draw a number from a box.

**PART A**

The table shows the results of the draw. The students who drew rational numbers will form the team called the Tigers. The students who drew irrational numbers will form the team called the Lions. List the members of each team.

**PART B**

The student on each team who drew the greatest number will be the captain of that team. Who will be the captain of the Tigers? Show your work.

**PART C**

Who will be the captain of the Lions? Show your work.

### Lesson 1.6 Use Properties of Integer Exponents

**Solve & Discuss It!**

One band’s streaming video concert to benefit a global charity costs $1.00 to view.

The first day, the concert got 2,187 views. The second day, it got about three times as many views. On the third day, it got 3 times as many views as on the second day. If the trend continues, how much money will the band raise on Day 7?

**Focus on math practices**

Use Structure Use prime factorization to write an expression equivalent to the amount of money raised by the band on the last day of the week.

**? Essential Question**

How do properties of integer exponents help you write equivalent expressions?

**Try It!**

The local zoo welcomed a newborn African elephant that weighed 3^{4} kg. It is expected that at adulthood, the newborn elephant will weigh approximately 3^{4} times as much as its birth weight. What expression represents the expected adult weight of the newborn elephant?

**Convince Me!**

Explain why the Product of Powers Property makes mathematical sense.

**Try It!**

Write equivalent expressions using the properties of exponents.

a. (7^{3})^{2}

b. (4^{5})^{3}

c. 9^{4} × 8^{4}

d. 8^{9} ÷ 8^{3}

Answer:

**KEY CONCEPT**

Use these properties when simplifying expressions with exponents (when a, m, and n ≠ 0).

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**Essential Question** How do properties of integer exponents help you write equivalent expressions?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Look for Relationships** If you are writing an equivalent expression for 2^{3}. 2^{4}, how many times would you write 2 as a factor?

Answer:

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** Kristen wrote 5^{8} as an expression equivalent to (5^{2})^{4}. Her math partner writes 5^{6}. Who is correct?

Answer:

Question 4.

**Critique Reasoning** Tyler says that an equivalent expression for 2^{3} × 5^{3} is 10^{9}. Is he correct? Explain.

**Do You Know How?**

Question 5.

Write an equivalent expression for 7^{12} . 7^{4}.

Answer:

Question 6.

Write an equivalent expression for (8^{2})^{4}.

Answer:

Question 7.

A billboard has the given dimensions.

Using exponents, write two equivalent expressions for the area of the rectangle.

Answer:

Question 8.

Write an equivalent expression for 18^{9} – 18^{4}.

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

Leveled Practice In 9-12, use the properties of exponents to write an equivalent expression for each given expression.

Question 9.

2^{8}. 2^{4}

Answer:

Question 10.

\(\frac{8^{7}}{8^{3}}\)

Answer:

Question 11.

(3^{4})^{5}

Answer:

Question 12.

3^{9}.2^{9}

Answer:

Question 13.

a. How do you multiply powers that have the same base?

b. How do you divide powers that have the same base?

c. How do you find the power of a power?

d. How do you multiply powers with different bases but the same exponent?

Answer:

Question 14.

Which expressions are equivalent to 2^{11}?

Select all that apply.

\(\frac{2^{23}}{2^{12}}\)

2^{7} ∙ 2^{4}

\(\frac{2^{9}}{2^{2}}\)

2^{2} ∙ 2^{9}

Answer:

In 15-18, use the properties of exponents to write an equivalent expression for each given expression.

Question 15.

(4^{4})^{3}

Answer:

Question 16.

\(\frac{3^{12}}{3^{3}}\)

Answer:

Question 17.

4^{5} ∙ 4^{2}

Answer:

Question 18.

6^{4} ∙ 2^{4}

Answer:

Question 19.

**Critique Reasoning** Alberto incorrectly stated that \(\frac{5^{7}}{5^{4}}\) = 1^{3}. What was Alberto’s error? Explain your reasoning and find the correct answer.

Answer:

Question 20.

Is the expression 8 × 8^{5} equivalent to (8 × 8)^{5}? Explain.

Answer:

Question 21.

Is the expression (3^{2})^{-3} equivalent to (3^{3})^{-2}? Explain.

Answer:

Question 22.

Is the expression 3^{2} ∙ 3^{-3} equivalent to 3^{3} ∙ 3^{-2}? Explain.

Answer:

Question 23.

**Model with Math** What is the width of the rectangle written as an exponential expression?

Answer:

Question 24.

Simplify the expression \(\left(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{3}\right)^{3}\).

Answer:

Question 25.

**Higher Order Thinking** Use a property of exponents to write (3b)^{5} as a product of powers.

Answer:

**Assessment Practice**

Question 26.

Select all the expressions equivalent to 4^{5} ∙ 4^{10}

4^{5} + 4^{10}

4^{3} ∙ 4^{5}

4^{3} ∙ 4^{12}

4^{3} + 4^{12}

4^{18} – 4^{3}

4^{15}

Question 27.

Your teacher asks the class to evaluate the expression (2^{3})^{1}. Your classmate gives an incorrect answer of 16.

**PART A**

Evaluate the expression.

**PART B**

What was the likely error?

A. Your classmate divided the exponents.

B. Your classmate multiplied the exponents.

C. Your classmate added the exponents.

D. Your classmate subtracted the exponents.

Answer:

### Lesson 1.7 More Properties of Integer Exponents

**ACTIVITY**

**Explore It!**

Calvin and Mike do sit-ups when they work out. They start with 64 sit-ups for the first set and do half as many each subsequent set.

**Look for Relationships**

Determine whether the relationship shown for Set 1 is also true for Sets 2-5.

A. What representation can you use to show the relationship between the set number and the number of sit-ups?

B. What conclusion can you make about the relationship between the number of sit-ups in each set?

**Focus on math practices**

Use Structure How could you determine the number of sit-up sets Calvin and Mike do?

**? Essential Question**

What do the Zero Exponent and Negative Exponent Properties mean?

**Try It!**

Evaluate

a. (-7)^{0}

b. (43)^{0}

c. 1^{0}

d. (0.5^{0})

**Convince Me!**

Why is 2(7^{0}) = 2?

**Try It!**

Write each expression using positive exponents.

a. 8^{-2}

b. 2^{-4}

c. 3^{-5}

Answer:

**Try It!**

Write each expression using positive exponents.

a. \(\frac{1}{5^{-3}}\)

b. \(\frac{1}{2^{-6}}\)

**KEY CONCEPT**

Use these additional properties when simplifying or generating equivalent expressions with exponents (when a ≠ 0 and n ≠ 0).

Zero Exponent Property

a^{0} = 1

Negative Exponent Property

a^{-n} = \(\frac{1}{a^{n}}\)

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**Essential Question** What do the Zero Exponent and Negative Exponent Properties mean?

Question 2.

**Reasoning** In the expression 9^{-12}, what does the negative exponent mean?

Question 3.

**Reasoning** in the expression 3(2^{0}), what is the order of operations? Explain how you would evaluate the expression.

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

Simplify 1,999,999^{0}.

Answer:

Question 5.

a. Write 7^{-6} using a positive exponent.

b. Rewrite \(\frac{1}{10^{-3}}\) using a positive exponent.

Answer:

Question 6.

Evaluate 27x^{o}y^{-2} for x = 4 and y = 3.

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

**Leveled Practice** In 7-8, complete each table to find the value of a nonzero number raised to the power of 0.

Question 7.

Answer:

Question 8.

Answer:

Question 9.

Given: (-3.2)^{0}

a. Simplify the given expression.

b. Write two expressions equivalent to the given expression. Explain why the three expressions are equivalent.

Answer:

Question 10.

Simplify each expression for x = 6.

a. 12x^{0}(x^{-4})

b. 14(x^{-2})

In 11 and 12, compare the values using >,<, or =.

Question 11.

3^{-2} 1

Answer:

Question 12.

\(\left(\frac{1}{4}\right)^{0}\) 1

In 13 and 14, rewrite each expression using a positive exponent.

Question 13.

9^{-4}

Answer:

Question 14.

\(\frac{1}{2^{-6}}\)

Answer:

Question 15.

Given: 9y^{0}

a. Simplify the expression for y = 3.

b. Construct Arguments Will the value of the given expression vary depending on y? Explain.

Answer:

Question 16.

Simplify each expression for x = 4.

a. -5x^{-4}

b. 7x^{-3}

Answer:

Question 17.

Evaluate each pair of expressions.

a. (-3)^{-8} and -3^{-8}

b. (-3)^{-9} and -3^{-9}

Answer:

Question 18.

**Be Precise** To win a math game, Lamar has to pick a card with an expression that has a value greater than 1. The card Lamar chooses reads \(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{-4}\). Does Lamar win the game? Explain.

Answer:

Question 19.

Simplify the expression. Assume that x is nonzero. Your answer should have only positive exponents. x^{-10} ∙ x^{6}

Answer:

Question 20.

**Higher Order Thinking**

a. Is the value of the expression \(\left(\frac{1}{4^{-3}}\right)^{-2}\) greater than 1, equal to 1, or less than 1?

b. If the value of the expression is greater than 1, show how you can change one sign to make the value less than 1. If the value is less than 1, show how you can change one sign to make the value greater than 1. If the value is equal to 1, show how you can make one change to make the value not equal to 1.

**Assessment Practice**

Question 21.

Which expressions are equal to 5^{-3}? Select all

that apply.

125

125^{-1}

5^{3}

\(\frac{1}{5^{3}}\)

\(\frac{1}{125}\)

Answer:

Question 22.

Which expressions have a value less than 1 when x = 4? Select all that apply.

\(\left(\frac{3}{x^{2}}\right)^{0}\)

\(\frac{x^{0}}{3^{2}}\)

\(\frac{1}{6^{-x}}\)

\(\frac{1}{x^{-3}}\)

3x^{-4}

### Lesson 1.8 Use Powers of 10 to Estimate Quantities

**ACTIVITY**

**Explain It!**

Keegan and Jeff did some research and found that there are approximately 7,492,000,000,000,000,000 grains of sand on Earth. Jeff says that it is about 7 × 10^{15} grains of sand. Keegan says that this is about 7 × 10^{18} grains of sand.

A. How might Jeff have determined his estimate? How might Keegan have determined his estimate?

B. Whose estimate, Jeff’s or Keegan’s, is more logical? Explain.

**Focus on math practices**

Be Precise Do you think the two estimates are close in value? Explain your reasoning.

**? Essential Question**

when would you use a power of 10 to estimate a quantity?

**Try It!**

Light travels 299,792,458 meters per second. Sound travels at 332 meters per second. Use a power of 10 to compare the speed of light to the speed of sound.

299,792,458 rounded to the greatest place value is

There are zeros in the rounded number.

The estimated speed of light is × 10^{} meters per second.

3 × 10^{} > 3 × 10^{}, so the speed of light is faster than the speed of sound.

322 rounded to the greatest place value is

There are zeros in the rounded number. The estimated speed of sound is × 10^{} meters per second.

**Convince Me!**

Country A has a population of 1,238,682,005 and Country B has a population of 1,106,487,394. How would you compare these populations?

**Try It!**

There are approximately 1,020,000,000 cars in the world. The number of cars in the United States is approximately 239,800,000.

Compare the number of cars in the world to that in the United States.

**KEY CONCEPT**

You can estimate a very large or very small number by rounding the number to its greatest place value, and then writing that number as a single digit times a power of 10.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question** when would you use powers of 10 to estimate a quantity?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Construct Arguments** Kim writes an estimate for the number 0.00436 as 4 × 10^{3}. Explain why this cannot be correct.

Answer:

Question 3.

**Be Precise** Raquel estimated 304,900,000,000 as 3 × 10^{8}. What error did she make?

Answer:

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

Use a single digit times a power of 10 to estimate the height of Mt. Everest to the nearest ten thousand feet.

Answer:

Question 5.

A scientist records the mass of a proton as 0.0000000000000000000000016726231 gram. Use a single digit times a power of 10 to estimate the mass.

Answer:

Question 6.

The tanks at the Georgia Aquarium hold approximately 8.4 × 10^{6} gallons of water. The tanks at the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas hold about 400,000 gallons of water. Use a single digit times a power of 10 to estimate how many times greater the amount of water is at the Georgia Aquarium.

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

**Leveled Practice** in 7-9, use powers of 10 to estimate quantities.

Question 7.

A city has a population of 2,549,786 people. Estimate this population to the nearest million. Express your answer as the product of a single digit and a power of 10. Rounded to the nearest million, the population is about

Written as the product of a single digit and a power of ten, this number is

Answer:

Question 8.

Use a single digit times a power of 10 to estimate the number 0.00002468. Rounded to the nearest hundred thousandth, the number is about

Written as a single digit times a power of ten, the estimate is

Answer:

Question 9.

The approximate circumferences of Earth and Saturn are shown. How many times greater is the circumference of Saturn than the circumference of Earth?

The circumference of Saturn is

Saturn’s circumference is about times greater than the circumference of Earth.

Answer:

Question 10.

Estimate 0.037854921 to the nearest hundredth. Express your answer as a single digit times a power of ten.

Answer:

Question 11.

Compare the numbers 6 × 10^{-6} and 2 × 10^{-8}.

a. Which number has the greater value?

b. Which number has the lesser value?

c. How many times greater is the greater number?

Answer:

Question 12.

Taylor made $43,785 last year. Use a single digit times a power of ten to express this value rounded to the nearest ten thousand.

Answer:

Question 13.

The length of plant cell A is 8 × 10^{-5} meter. The length of plant cell B is 0.000004 meter. How many times greater is plant cell A’s length than plant cell B’s length?

Answer:

Question 14.

**Critique Reasoning** The diameter of one species of bacteria is shown. Bonnie approximates this measure as 3 × 10^{-11} meter. Is she correct? Explain.

Answer:

Question 15.

The populations of Cities A and B are 2.6 × 10^{5} and 1,560,000, respectively. The population of City C is twice the population of City B. The population of City C is how many times the population of City A?

Answer:

**Assessment Practice**

Question 16.

Earth is approximately 5 × 10^{9} years old. For which of these ages could this be an approximation?

A. 4,762,100,000 years

B. 48,000,000,000 years

C. 4.45 × 10^{9} years

D. 4.249999999 × 10^{9} years

Answer:

Question 17.

**PART A**

Express 0.000000298 as a single digit times a power of ten rounded to the nearest ten millionth.

**PART B**

Explain how negative powers of 10 can be helpful when writing and comparing small numbers.

Answer:

### Lesson 1.9 Understand Scientific Notation

**ACTIVITY**

**Solve & Discuss It!**

Scientists often write very large or very small numbers using exponents. How might a scientist write the number shown using exponents?

**Use Structure**

How can you use your knowledge of powers of 10 to rewrite the number?

**Focus on math practices**

Look for Relationships What does the exponent in 1015 tell you about the value of the number?

**? Essential Question**

What is scientific notation and why is it used?

**Try It!**

The height of Angel Falls, the tallest waterfall in the world, is 3,212 feet. How do you write this number in scientific notation?

**Convince Me!**

Why do very large numbers have positive exponents when written in scientific notation? Explain.

**Try It!**

A common mechanical pencil lead measures about 0.005 meter in diameter. How can you express this measurement using scientific notation ?

**Try It!**

Write the numbers in standard form.

a. 9.225 × 10^{18}

b. 6.3 × 10^{-8}

Answer:

**KEY CONCEPT**

Scientific notation is a way to write very large numbers or very small numbers. Scientists use scientific notation as a more efficient and convenient way of writing such numbers.

A number in scientific notation is the product of two factors. The first factor must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. The second factor is a power of 10.

To write a number in scientific notation in standard form, multiply the decimal number by the power of 10.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**?Essential Question** What is scientific notation and why is it used?

Answer:

Question 2.

**Critique Reasoning** Taylor states that 2,800,000 in scientific notation is 2.8 × 10^{-6} because the number has six places to the right of the 2. Is Taylor’s reasoning correct?

Answer:

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** Sam will write 0.000032 in scientific notation. Sam thinks that the exponent of 10 will be positive. Do you agree? Construct an argument to support your response.

Answer:

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

Express 586,400,000 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 5.

The genetic information of almost every living thing is stored in a tiny strand called DNA. Human DNA is 3.4 × 10^{-8} meter long. Write the length in standard form.

Answer:

Question 6.

The largest virus known to man is the Megavirus, which measures 0.00000044 meter across. Express this number in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 7.

How would you write the number displayed on the calculator screen in standard form?

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

Leveled Practice In 8 and 9, write the numbers in the correct format.

Question 8.

The Sun is 1.5 × 10^{8} kilometers from Earth. 1.5 × 10^{8} is written as in standard form.

Answer:

Question 9.

Brenna wants an easier way to write 0.0000000000000000587.

0.0000000000000000587 is written as × 10 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 10.

Is 23 × 10^{-8} written in scientific notation? Justify your response.

Answer:

Question 11.

Is 8.6 × 10^{7} written in scientific notation? Justify your response.

Answer:

Question 12.

Simone evaluates an expression using her calculator. The calculator display is shown at the right. Express the number in standard form.

Answer:

Question 13.

Express the number 0.00001038 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 14.

Express the number 80,000 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 15.

Peter evaluates an expression using his calculator. The calculator display is shown at the right. Express the number in standard form.

Answer:

Question 16.

a. What should you do first to write 5.871 × 10^{-7} in standard form?

b. Express the number in standard form

Answer:

Question 17.

Express 2.58 × 10^{-2} in standard form.

Answer:

Question 18.

At a certain point, the Grand Canyon is approximately 1,600,000 centimeters across. Express this number in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 19.

The length of a bacterial cell is 5.2 × 10^{-6} meter. Express the length of the cell in standard form.

Answer:

Question 20.

**Higher Order Thinking** Express the distance 4,300,000 meters using scientific notation in meters, and then in millimeters.

Answer:

**Assessment Practice**

Question 21.

Which of the following numbers are written in scientific notation?

12 × 10^{6}

12

6.89 × 10^{6}

6.89

0.4

4 × 10^{-1}

Answer:

Question 22.

Jeana’s calculator display shows the number to the right.

**PART A**

Express this number in scientific notation.

**PART B**

Express this number in standard form.

### 3-Act Mathematical Modeling: Hard-Working Organs

**3-ACT MATH**

**ACT 1**

Question 1.

After watching the video, what is the first question that comes to mind?

Answer:

Question 2.

Write the Main Question you will answer.

Answer:

Question 3.

**Construct Arguments** Predict an answer to this Main Question. Explain your prediction.

Answer:

Question 4.

On the number line below, write a number that is too small to be the answer. Write a number that is too large.

Answer:

Question 5.

Plot your prediction on the same number line.

**АСТ 2**

Question 6.

What information in this situation would be helpful to know? How would you use that information?

Answer:

Question 7.

**Use Appropriate Tools** What tools can you use to solve the problem? Explain how you would use them strategically.

Answer:

Question 8.

**Model with Math** Represent the situation using mathematics. Use your representation to answer the Main Question.

Answer:

Question 9.

What is your answer to the Main Question? Is it greater or less than your prediction? Explain why.

Answer:

**ACT 3**

Question 10.

Write the answer you saw in the video.

Answer;

Question 11.

**Reasoning** Does your answer match the answer in the video? If not, what are some reasons that would explain the difference?

Answer:

Question 12.

**Make Sense and Persevere** Would you change your model now that you know the answer? Explain.

Answer:

**ACT 3**

**Reflect**

Question 13.

**Model with Math** Explain how you used a mathematical model to represent the situation. How did the model help you answer the Main Question?

Answer:

Question 14.

**Generalize** What pattern did you notice in your calculations? How did that pattern help you solve the problem?

Answer:

**SEQUEL**

Question 15.

**Use Structure** How many times does a heart beat in a lifetime? Use your solution to the Main Question to help you solve.

Answer:

### Lesson 1.10 Operations with Numbers in Scientific Notation

**Solve & Discuss It!**

The homecoming committee wants to fly an aerial banner over the football game. The banner is 1,280 inches long and 780 inches tall. How many different ways can the area of the banner be expressed?

**Focus on math practices**

Be Precise Which of the solutions is easiest to manipulate?

**? Essential Question**

How does using scientific notation help when computing with very large or very small numbers?

**Try It!**

The planet Venus is on average 2.5 × 10^{7} kilometers from Earth. The planet Mars is on average 2.25 × 10^{8} kilometers from Earth. When Venus, Earth, and Mars are aligned, what is the average distance from Venus to Mars?

Answer:

**Convince Me!**

In Example 1 and the Try it, why did you move the decimal point to get the final answer?

**Try It!**

There are 1 × 10^{14} good bacteria in the human body. There are 2.6 x 10^{18} good bacteria among the spectators in a soccer stadium. About how many spectators are in the stadium? Express your answer in scientific notation.

**KEY CONCEPT**

Operations with very large or very small numbers can be carried out more efficiently using scientific notation. The properties of exponents apply when carrying out operations.

**Do You Understand?**

Question 1.

**? Essential Question**

How does using scientific notation help when computing with very small or very large numbers?

Question 2.

**Use Structure** When multiplying and dividing two numbers in scientific notation, why do you sometimes have to rewrite one factor?

Answer:

Question 3.

**Use Structure** For the sum of (5.2 × 10^{4}) and (6.95 × 10^{4}) in scientific notation, why will the power of 10 be 10^{5}?

Answer:

**Do You Know How?**

Question 4.

A bacteriologist estimates that there are 5.2 × 10^{4} bacteria growing in each of 20 petri dishes. About how many bacteria in total are growing in the petri dishes? Express your answer in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 5.

The distance from Earth to the Moon is approximately 1.2 × 10^{9} feet. The Apollo 11 spacecraft was approximately 360 feet long. About how many spacecraft of that length would fit end to end from Earth to the Moon? Express your answer in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 6.

The mass of Mars is 6.42 × 10^{23} kilograms. The mass of Mercury is 3.3 × 10^{23} kilograms.

a. What is the combined mass of Mars and Mercury expressed in scientific notation?

b. What is the difference in the mass of the two planets expressed in scientific notation?

Answer:

**Practice & Problem Solving**

**Leveled Practice** In 7 and 8, perform the operation and express your answer in scientific notation.

Question 7.

(7 × 10^{-6})(7 × 10^{-6})

Answer:

Question 8.

(3.76 × 10^{5}) + (7.44 × 10^{5})

Answer:

Question 9.

What is the value of n in the equation

1.9 × 10^{7} = (1 × 10^{5})(1.9 × 10^{n})?

Answer:

Question 10.

Find (5.3 × 10^{3}) – (8 × 10^{2}).

Express your answer in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 11.

What is the mass of 30,000 molecules? Express your answer in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 12.

**Critique Reasoning** Your friend says that the product of 4.8 × 10^{8} and 2 × 10^{-3} is 9.6 × 10^{-5}. Is this answer correct? Explain.

Answer:

Question 13.

Find \(\frac{7.2 \times 10^{-8}}{3 \times 10^{-2}}\). Write your answer in scientific white notation.

Answer:

Question 14.

A certain star is 4.3 × 10^{2} light years from Earth. One light year is about 5.9 × 10^{12} miles. How far from Earth (in miles) is the star? Express your answer in scientific notation.

Question 15.

The total consumption of fruit juice in a particular country in 2006 was about 2.28 × 10^{9} gallons. The population of that country that year was 3 × 10^{8}. What was the average number of gallons consumed per person in the country in 2006?

Answer:

Question 16.

The greatest distance between the Sun and Jupiter is about 8.166 × 10^{8} kilometers. The greatest distance between the Sun and Saturn is about 1.515 × 10^{9} kilometers. What is the difference between these two distances?

Answer:

Question 17.

What was the approximate number of pounds of garbage produced per person in the country in one year? Express your answer in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 18.

**Higher Order Thinking**

a. What is the value of n in the equation

1.5 × 10^{12} = (5 × 10^{5})(3 × 10^{n})?

b. Explain why the exponent on the left side of the equation is not equal to the sum of the exponents on the right side.

**Assessment Practice**

Question 19.

Find (2.2 × 10^{5}) ÷ (4.4 × 10^{-3}). When you regroup the factors, what do you notice about the quotient of the decimal factors? How does this affect the exponent of the quotient?

Answer:

Question 20.

Which expression has the least value?

A. (4.7 × 10^{4}) + (8 × 10^{4})

B. (7.08 × 10^{3}) + (2.21 × 10^{3})

C. (5.43 × 10^{8}) – (2.33 × 10^{8})

D. (9.35 × 10^{6}) – (6.7 × 10^{6})

Answer:

### Topic 1 Review

**? Topic Essential Question**

What are real numbers? How are real numbers used to solve problems?

**Vocabulary Review**

**Use Vocabulary in Writing**

Use vocabulary words to explain how to find the length of each side of a square garden with an area of 196 square inches.

**Concepts and Skills Review**

**LESSON 1.1 Rational Numbers as Decimals**

**Quick Review**

You can write repeating decimals in fraction form by writing two equations. You multiply each side of one equation by a power of 10. Then you subtract the equations to eliminate the repeating decimal.

**Practice**

Write each number as a fraction or a mixed number.

Question 1.

0.\(\overline{7}\)

Answer:

Question 2.

0.0\(\overline{4}\)

Answer:

Question 3.

4.\(\overline{45}\)

Question 4.

2.191919….

Answer:

**LESSON 1.2 Understand Irrational Numbers**

**Quick Review**

An irrational number is a number that cannot be written in the form \(\frac{a}{b}\), where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. Rational and irrational numbers together make up the real number system.

**Practice**

Question 1.

Determine which numbers are irrational. Select all that apply.

\(\sqrt{36}\)

\(\sqrt{23}\)

-4.232323….

0.151551555….

0.3\(\overline{5}\)

π

Question 2.

Classify -0.\(\overline{25}\) as rational or irrational. Explain.

Answer:

**LESSON 1.3 Compare and Order Real Numbers**

**Quick Review**

To compare and order real numbers, it helps to first write each number in decimal form.

**Practice**

Question 1.

Between which two whole numbers does \(\sqrt{89}\) lie?

\(\sqrt{89}\) is between and

Answer:

Question 2.

Compare and order the following numbers. Locate each number on a number line. 2.\(\overline{3}\), \(\sqrt{8}\), 2.5, 2\(\frac{1}{4}\)

Answer:

**LESSON 1.4 Evaluate Square Roots and Cube Roots**

**Quick Review**

Remember that a perfect square is the square of an integer. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself is equal to the original number. Similarly, a perfect cube is the cube of an integer. A cube root of a number is a number that when cubed is equal to the original number.

**Practice**

Classify each number as a perfect square, a perfect cube, both, or neither.

Question 1.

27

Answer:

Question 2.

100

Answer:

Question 3.

64

Answer:

Question 4.

24

Answer:

Question 5.

A gift box is a cube with a volume of 512 cubic inches. What is the length of each edge of the box?

Answer:

**LESSON 1.5 Solve Equations Using Square Roots and Cube Roots**

**Quick Review**

You can use square roots to solve equations involving squares. You can use cube roots to solve equations involving cubes. Equations with square roots often have two solutions. Look at the context to see whether both solutions are valid.

Practice Solve for x.

Question 1.

x^{3} = 64

Answer:

Question 2.

x^{2} = 49

Answer:

Question 3.

x^{3} = 25

Answer:

Question 4.

x^{2} = 125

Answer:

Question 5.

A container has a cube shape. It has a volume of 216 cubic inches. What are the dimensions of one face of the container?

**LESSON 1.6 Use Properties of Integer Exponents**

**Quick Review**

These properties can help you write equivalent expressions that contain exponents.

Product of Powers Property

a^{m}.a^{n} = a^{m+n}

Power of Powers Property

(a^{m})^{n} = a^{mn}

Power of Products Property

a^{n} ∙ b^{n} = (a ∙ b)^{n}

Quotient of Powers Property

a^{m} ÷ a^{n} = a^{m-n}, when a ≠ 0

**Practice**

Use the properties of exponents to write an equivalent expression for each given expression.

Question 1.

6^{4} ∙ 6^{3}

Answer:

Question 2.

(3^{6})^{-2}

Answer:

Question 3.

7^{3} ∙ 2^{3}

Answer:

Question 4.

4^{10} ÷ 4^{4}

Answer:

**LESSON 1.7 More Properties of Integer Exponents**

**Quick Review**

The Zero Exponent Property states that any nonzero number raised to the power of 0 is equal to 1. The Negative Exponent Property states that for any nonzero rational number a and integer n, a^{-n} = \(\frac{1}{a^{n}}\)

**Practice**

Write each expression using positive exponents.

Question 1.

9^{-4}

Answer:

Question 2.

\(\frac{1}{3^{-5}}\)

Answer:

Evaluate each expression for x = 2 and y = 5

Question 3.

-4x^{-2} + 3y^{0}

Answer:

Question 4.

2x^{0}y^{-2}

Answer:

**LESSON 1.8 Use Powers of 10 to Estimate Quantities**

**Quick Review**

You can estimate very large and very small quantities by writing the number as a single digit times a power of 10.

**Practice**

Question 1.

In the year 2013 the population of California was about 38,332,521 people. Write the estimated population as a single digit times a power of 10.

Answer:

Question 2.

The wavelength of green light is about 0.00000051 meter. What is this estimated wavelength as a single digit times a power of 10?

Answer:

Question 3.

The land area of Connecticut is about 12,549,000,000 square meters. The land area of Rhode Island is about 2,707,000,000 square meters. How many times greater is the land area of Connecticut than the land area of Rhode Island?

Answer:

**LESSON 1.9 Understand Scientific Notation**

**Quick Review**

A number in scientific notation is written as a product of two factors, one greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, and the other a power of 10.

**Practice**

Question 1.

Write 803,000,000 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 2.

Write 0.0000000068 in scientific notation.

Answer:

Question 3.

Write 1.359 × 10^{5} in standard form.

Answer:

Question 4.

The radius of a hydrogen atom is 0.000000000025 meter. How would you express this radius in scientific notation?

**LESSON 1.10 Operations with Numbers in Scientific Notation**

**Quick Review**

When multiplying and dividing numbers in scientific notation, multiply or divide the first factors. Then multiply or divide the powers of 10. When adding and subtracting numbers in scientific notation, first write the numbers with the same power of 10. Then add or subtract the first factors, and keep the same power of 10.

If the decimal part of the result is not greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, move the decimal point and adjust the exponent.

**Practice**

Perform each operation. Express your answers in scientific notation.

Question 1.

(2.8 × 10^{4}) × (4 × 10^{5})

Answer:

Question 2.

(6 × 10^{9}) ÷ (2.4 × 10^{3})

Question 3.

(4.1 × 10^{4}) + (5.6 × 10^{6})

Answer:

Question 4.

The population of Town A is 1.26 × 10^{5} people. The population of Town B is 2.8 × 10^{4} people. How many times greater is the population of Town A than the population of Town B?

Answer:

### Topic 1 Fluency Practice

**Crisscrossed**

Solve each equation. Write your answers in the cross-number puzzle below. Each digit, negative sign, and decimal point of

your answer goes in its own box.

**Across**

A -377 = x – 1,000

B x^{3} = 1,000

C x^{3} = -8

D x + 7 = -209

F x + 19 = -9

J 14 + x = -9

L m – 2.02 = -0.58

M -3.09 + x = -0.7

N -2.49 = -5 + x

Q x – 3.5 = -3.1

T q – 0.63 = 1.16

V 8.3 + x = 12.1

**Down**

A y – 11 = 49

B x + 8 = 20

C z^{3} = -1,331

D 11 + x = 3

E x – 14 -7.96

F 14 + x = -19

G d + 200 = 95

H x^{2} = 144

K -12 = t – 15.95

P 0.3 + x = 11

R x – 3 = -21

S – 7 = -70 + y