Relations Between Men And Women Summary Notes

Relations Between Men And Women About The Author

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (May 22,1772- September 27 -1833) was an Indian socio educational reformer who was also known as ‘Maker ofModem India’ and ‘Father of the Bengal Renaissance’. He lived during one of India’s darkest social phases but strived his best to make his motherland abetter place for the future generations to come. Bom into a prosperous Brahmin family of Bengal, he challenged the traditional Hindu culture and unorthodox religious ideas at a very young age. A multilingual and a visionary, he wanted to combine the righteousness of Western and Indian culture.

He was against traditional Hindu practices and echoed his vone against Sati system, polygamy, caste rigidity and child marriage He also wanted to modernize the education system and set up a lot of English medium schools An extract from his writing taken from Ramachandra Guha’s Makers ofModem India throws light on the abominable practices like sati, caste System and gender discrimination.

Relations Between Men And Women Summary

The given lesson “Relations between Men and Women” is an essay written by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was an Indian socio – educational reformer and know as “Maker of Modem India”. The present extract is taken from a book of collected essays of the writings of nineteenth century thinkers, compiled by Shri Ramachandra Guha in a book named ‘Makers of Modem India’. Ramchandra Guha is an Indian historian and writer whose research interests include environmental, social, political, contemporary history and cricket history.

The essay focuses on the polyglot and polymath Raja Ram Mohan Roy, India’s first thinker. The essay attacks Sati and the existing patriarchal society, and his defence of women against the accusations of their being physically, mentally, and morally inferior to men.

Roy effectively presents his arguments to distinguish the attributes of men and women and how these have led to inequality of male and female gender in our society. It is a critical analysis of the treatment meted out to Indian women in general by the patriarchal Indian society.

The first attribute that Roy presents in the essay is the physical weakness of women. Roy admits that women in general are physically weaker than men and lack the physical energy possessed by men. Men have misused this attribute in women to deny them those merits that are endowed by nature and which they rightly deserve.

Having denied those merits, men argue that women are naturally incapable of acquiring those merits. The author believes that there is no truth in their argument and men can’t justify those accusations. He tries to disprove their argument by stating that men had never given women a fair opportunity to exhibit their natural capacity.

Roy poses another question to men and demands an answer. He asks them “How can you accuse them of want of understanding?”. But first Roy explains the underlying factors that has lead men to say that women lack the capacity to understand.

He says that a person can be said to be unintelligent if he lacks understanding, if he cannot comprehend or understand what is being taught to him / her. But men have for long denied the women, their right to education. So men cannot accuse them that they lack the capacity to understand.

The second accusation that men charge women of is about their lack of determination (Resolution). Roy is surprised at this accusation. He cites the example of the inhuman, Sati system followed in India. According to this custom, women voluntarily offer themselves to the funeral pyre of their dead husband and bum to death. Yet
men accuse women that they lack determination (resolution).

The third accusation that men charge women is their lack of trust worthiness. To disprove this accusation the author makes a deep of the behavior (conduct) of both men and women. He states that more women are deceived by men than those of men who are deceived by women. The men who deceive women go unnoticed or rather are unaccountable.

This is because men are educated and hold public office, and find it easy to announce each indiscretion some women commit. Women do not have a ‘voice’ in society to announce the indiscretion men subject then to. But Roy, criticizes women for their innocence. In their innocence they easily believe in men and are cheated. They are so gullible that they believe that if they bum themselves on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands, they will attain salvation.

Roy, criticizes men for their inhuman treatment of women. Women are treated as objects of their passion by men. A man can marry as many women he can but women can have only one husband. When the husband dies, she has to follow him on his funeral pyre or has to lead of life a strict morality and simple life after his death.

The fifth accusation that men charge women of is about their lack of virtuous knowledge. The author considers this accusation of an injustice to women. He asks us to take into consideration the pain, insult and the contempt women suffer in their household. Isn’t it a virtue that women suffer all the indignities that they are subjected to in silence?

Roy gives an illustration to prove women’s virtuosity. Many devote Brahmins marry many women for their money and many of these wives never see their husbands face in their lifetime. Yet they give up their lives on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands. Many of those women live the life of a destitute yet they remain virtuous.

In Indian society wives are recognised as the better- half of her husband but are treated as inferior animals. Women have to do all the house – hold work from morning to night, disregarding their own needs, to fulfil the needs of their family. She has to have her food only after everybody in the household are fed and satisfied. If she forgets to do any of the work assigned to her she is ill-treated.

The position of women in our society is delicate. If the husband gains wealth he ignores his wife and seeks to satisfy his passion elsewhere. As long as the husband is poor, she suffers every kind of trouble, and when he becomes rich, she is left heart – broken.

The women endure all this pain and suffering because of their innate virtues. Even if the wife decides to live separately, the law supports the husband and restores his wife to him. After she comes back to her husband she is subjected to more torture.

The author Raja Ram Mohan Roy does not pity these women but grieves for them, because there is no excuse for them to be subjected to such miseries expects their dependence and their weakness.

Relations Between Men And Women Glossary

  • Advocate : a person who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy, champion; proponent
  • Patriarch : the male head of a family or tribe
  • Corporeal : relating to a person’s body, especially as opposed to their spirit; human; mortal
  • Defieient : not having enough of a specified quality or ingredient
  • Promulgate : publicize; broadcast; announce
  • Resolution : firm decision
  • Betray : be disloyal to, be unfaithful to, break faith with; fail, let down
  • Forsake : abandon, desert, leave, quit
  • Void : empty
  • Duplicity : deceitfulness
  • SubjectIon : prone, liable, inclination
  • Austere : Morally strict
  • Ascetice : having a strict and simple way of living that aovids physical pleasure.
  • Victuals : food or provisions
  • Scour : scrub; clean, wash
  • Kuhn Brahmins : Kulim Brahmins are the Bengali Brabmins belonging to Hindu religion, who can trace themselves to the five families of Kannauj who migrated to Bengal. The five families were of the five gotras (Shandilya, Bharadwaj, Kashyap, Wtsya and Saavarna).

Relations Between Men And Women Questions And Answers

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each :

Question 1.
Who is the “you” in the text?
Answer:
‘You’ refers to ‘Men’.

Question 2.
Women are inferior to men in ________ and ________.
Answer:
bodily strength and energy.

Question 3.
What has been denied to women from exhibiting their natural capacity?
Answer:
Education.

Question 4.
Who is deceived more often?
Answer:
Women are deceived more often.

Question 5.
What are the duties performed by women early in the morning?
Answer:
Women are to work as a slave to clean the house very early in the morning. They have to wash the floor, clean the dishes and cook night and day. They have to attend to their cows, fetch water from the river or tank and prepare cow – dung for firing.

Question 6.
Why are quarrels more common amongst Hindus?
Answer:
Hindus live in a joint – family. So there are quarrels between the brothers regarding their wordly affairs.

Question 7.
When is a women insulted by the husband and the mother in law?
Answer:
Women are insulted by the husband and the mother – in – law when in the preparation or serving up of the victuals, women commit a small fault.

II. Answer the following questions in a short paragraph each :

Question 1.
Why can’t women be considered inferior to men?
Answer:
Women cannot be considered as inferior because they were not given a fair opportunity of exhibiting their natural ability. They have been denied those excellent merits that they are entitled to by nature by men, citing their corporel weakeness. Women are denied education and instruction, and men consider them inferior because
the lack comprehension. So it is not fair to consider women as inference after denying them everyting they are entitled to.

Question 2.
Comment on the female firmness of mind.
Answer:
The author, Roy, is surprised that men charge women with want of resolution (determintion). He asks us to consider that in our culture even men fear death. But the women offer themselves with to the funeral pyre of their husbands with such determination, that they do not even fear death. In spite of these examples of a women’s
determination, men have the nerve to accuse them that they lack resolution

Question 3.
How is the misconception of women being unworthy of trust promulgated by men?
Answer:
The number of won. ;n betrayed by men far exceeds the number men betrayed by women. Yet men charge women with lack of trust worthiness. Men who women go unnoticed or rather are unaccountable. Moreove1 men are educated and hold public office, and find it easy to announcement each indiscretion some women commit. Women do not have a ‘voice’ in society to announce the indiscretion men subject them to. In their innocence and gullibility they easily believe in men and are cheated. The are gullible enough to believe that if they bum themselves on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands, they will attain salvation.

Question 4.
Are women subject to passion more than men? How does Roy dispel this misconception?
Answer:
In our society women are subjected to inhuman treatment. They are treated as objects of their passion. But men accuse women, that they are prone to passion. This can be judged by the custom of marriage as to the respective sexes. One man can marry as many women as he can, while a women can marry but one husband. If we consider that women are prone to passion, then why does she choose to follow her dead husband to his funeral pyre and bum to death, fore saking all worldly enjoyments or remain alive to lead a strict and simple life.

Question 5.
Women are treated worse than inferior animals. Elaborate.
Answer:
In Indian society wives are recognised as the better- half of her husband but are treated as inferior animals. Women have to do all the house – hold work from morning to night, disregarding then- own needs, to fulfil the needs of their family. She has to have her food only after everybody in the household are fed and satisfied. If she forgets to do any of the work assigned to her she is ill-treated. The position of women in our society is delicate.

If the husband gains wealth he ignores his wife and seeks to satisfy his passion elsewhere. As long as the husband is poor, she suffers every kind of trouble, and when he becomes rich, she is left heart – broken. The women endure all this pain and suffering because of their innate virtues. Even if the wife decides to live separately, the law supports the husband and restores his wife to him. After she comes back to her husband she is subjected to more torture.

Question 6.
What are the distressing situation that women endure?
Answer:
Indian women face many distressing situations in their life. If the husband acquire’s wealth, he indulges in eriminal amours. He will continue to do so even if she finds out about his extra – martial affairs. He may even do it under her eyes and does not even come to see her for a long time. As long as the husband is poor, she has to suffer every kind of trouble, and when he becomes rich, she is altogether heart broken. Her virtuosity allows her to excuse all her husbands indiscretions.

When a husband takes two or three wives to live with him, they are subjected to mental miseries and constant quarrels. The women endure such distress because of their virtue. Sometimes it happens that the husband prefers one of his wives, he behaves cruelly with another. Men with such amorous tendencies mistreat and torture their wives, if they find a slight fault in her conduct.

III. Answer the following questions in about a page each:

Question 1.
Comment on the five assumptions about women which Roy successfully demolishes through his scholarly arguments.
Answer:
Roy effectively presents his arguments to distinguish the attributes of men and women and how these have led to inequality of male and female gender in our society. It is a critical analysis of the treatment meted out to Indian women in general by the patriarchal Indian society.

The first attribute that Roy presents in the essay is the physical weakness of women. Roy admits that women in general are physically weaker than men and lack the physical energy possessed by men. Men have misused this attribute in women to deny them those merits that are endowed by nature and which they rightly deserve.

Having denied those merits, men argue that women are naturally incapable of acquiring those merits. The author believes that there is no truth in their argument and men can’t justify those accusations. He tries to disprove their argument by stating that men had never given women a fair opportunity to exhibit their natural capacity.

Roy poses another question to men and demands an answer. He asks them “How can you accuse them of want of understanding?”. But first Roy explains the underlying factors that has lead men to say that women lack the capacity to understand. He says that a person can be said to be unintelligent if he lacks understanding, if he cannot comprehend or understand what is being taught to him / her. But men have for long denied the women, their right to education. So men cannot accuse them that they lack the capacity to understand.

The second accusation that men charge women of is about their lack of determination (Resolution). Roy is surprised at this accusation. He cites the example of the inhuman, Sati system followed in India. According to this custom, women voluntarily offer themselves to the funeral pyre of their dead husband and bum to death. Yet men accuse women that they lack determination (resolution).

The third accusation that men charge women is their lack of trust worthiness. To disprove this accusation the author makes a deep analysis of the behaviour (conduct) of both men and women. He states that more women are deceived by men than those of men who are deceived by women. The men who deceive women go unnoticed or rather are unaccountable.

This is because men are educated and hold public office, and find it easy to announce each indiscretion some women commit. Women do not have a ‘voice ’ in society to announce the indiscretion men subject then to. But Roy, criticizes women for their innocence. In their innocence they easily believe in men and are cheated. They are so gullible that they believe that if they bum themselves on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands, they will attain salvation.

Roy, criticizes men for their inhuman treatment of women. Women are treated as objects oftheir passion by men. Aman can marry as many women he can but women can have only one husband. When the husband dies, she has to follow him on his funeral pyre or has to lead of life a strict morality and simple life after his death.

The fifth accusation that men charge women of is about their lack of virtuous knowledge. The author considers this accusation of an injustice to women. He asks us to take into consideration the pain, insult and the contempt women suffer in their household. Isn’t it a virtue that women suffer all the indignities that they are subjected to in silence?

Roy gives an illustration to prove women’s virtuosity. Many devote Brahmins marry many women for their money and many of these wives never see their husbands face in their lifetime. Yet they give up their lives on the funeral pyre oftheir dead husbands. Many of those women live the life of a destitute yet they remain virtuous.

In Indian society wives are recognised as the better- half of her husband but are treated as inferior animals. Women have to do all the house – hold work from morning to night, disregarding then- own needs, to fulfil the needs of their family. She has to have her food only after everybody in the household are fed and satisfied. If she forgets to do any of the work assigned to her she is ill-treated.

The position of women in our society is delicate. If the husband gains wealth he ignores his wife and seeks to satisfy his passion elsewhere. As long as the husband is poor, she suffers every kind of trouble, and when he becomes rich, she is left heart – broken. The women endure all this pain and suffering because of their innate virtues. Even if the wife decides to live separately, the law supports the husband and restores his wife to him. After she comes back to her husband she is subjected to more torture.

Question 2.
How does Roy establish women to be an embodiment of all virtues? Discuss
Answer:
Roy effectively presents his arguements with illustrations to establish women to be an embodiment of all virtues.
Men charge women is their lack of trust worthiness. To disprove this accusation the author makes a deep analysis of the behaviour (conduct) ofbothmen and womea He states that more women are deceived by men than those of men who are deceived by women. The men who deceive women go unnoticed or rather are unaccountable. This is because men are educated and hold public office, and find it easy to announce each indiscretion some women commit.

Women do not have a ‘voice’ in society to announce the indiscretion men subject then to. But Roy, criticizes women for their innocence. In their innocence they easily believe in men and are cheated. They are so gullible that they believe that if they bum themselves on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands, they will attain salvation.

Roy, criticizes men for their inhuman treatment of women. Women are treated as objects of their passion by men. A man can marry as many women he can but women can have only one husband. When the husband dies, she has to follow him on his funeral pyre or has to lead of life a strict morality and simple life after his death.

The fifth accusation that men charge women of is about their lack of virtuous knowledge. The author considers this accusation of an injustice to women. He asks us to take into consideration the pain, insult and the contempt women suffer in their household. Isn’t it a virtue that women suffer all the indignities that they are subjected to in silence?

Roy gives an illustration to prove women’s virtuosity. Many devote Brahmins marry many women for their money and many of these wives never see their husbands face in their lifetime. Yet they give up their lives on the funeral pyre of their dead husbands. Many of those women live the life of a destitute yet they remain virtuous.

In Indian society wives are recognised as the better- half of her husband but are treated as inferior animals. Women have to do all the house – hold work from morning to night, disregarding their own needs, to fulfil the needs of their family.

She has to have her food only after everybody in the household are fed and satisfied. If she forgets to do any of the work assigned to her she is ill-treated. The position of women in our society is delicate. If the husband gains wealth he ignores his wife and seeks to satisfy his passion elsewhere.

As long as the husband is poor, she suffers every kind of trouble, and when he becomes rich, she is left heart – broken. The women endure all this pain and suffering because of their innate virtues. Even if the wife decides to live separately, the law supports the husband and restores his wife to him. After she comes back to her husband she is subjected to more torture.

Relations Between Men And Women Language Activity

Note of Comprehension

Exercises

Read the following comprehension passages and answer the questions:

Passage 1
On Indian Women – Their Past, Present and Future. “Then, have our women any problems at all, Swamiji?” “Of course, they have many and grave problems, but none that are not be solved by that magic word “education.” The true education, however, is not yet conceived of amongst us.” “And how would you define that?”

“I never define anything”, said Swamiji, smiling. “Still, it may be described as a development of faculty, not an accumulation of words, or as a training of individuals to will rightly and efficiently. So shall we bring to the need of India great fearless women – women worthy to continue the traditions of Sanghamitta, Lila, Ahalya Bai, and Mira Bai – Women fit to be mothers of heroes, because they are pure and selfless, strong with the strength that comes of touching the feet of God”.

“Are you then entirely satisfied with the position of women amongst us, Swamiji?” “By no means”, said Swamiji, “but our right of interference is limited entirely to giving education. Women must be put in a position to solve their own problems in their own way. No one can or ought to do this for them. And our Indian women are as capable of doing it as any in the world”.

The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Volume V. Advaita Ashram, Calcutta, pp.231,229.

Question 1.
What is the magic word suggested by Swami Vivekananda that can solve women’s problems?
Answer:
Education.

Question 2.
Does he say that “true education” has been defined in our society?
Answer:
No, he has not said that ‘true education’ has been defined in our society.

Question 3.
How does Swami Vivekananda describe “education”?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda describes “education” as a development of faculty, not an accumulation ofwords, or as a training of individuals to will rightly and efficiently.

Question 4.
Who are the great fearless women mentioned by Swami Vivekananda in his interview?
Answer:
Sanghmitta, Lila, Ahalya Bai and Mira Bai.

Question 5.
“Women fit be mothers of heroes….” would you like to comment on this?
Answer:
Sanghamitta, Lila, Ahalya Bai and Mira Bai were ‘women fit to be mothers of heroes’ because they possessed the innate skill and knowledge to train their children to be brave, selfless and virtuous. They had the determination to sacrifice their children for the sake of their motherland. There sons have become immortal heroes and are still remembered for their bravery and sacrifice.

Passage 2 :
During the Second World War, the coming and going of ships was vital for Britain’s survival. The Germans wanted to destroy ships coming to Britain with food and ammunition. So all around the coasts they dropped mines, which were bombs made so that they would go off when a ship came near them. Some of these were magnetic mines which exploded when a steel ship came near.

Later the Germans invented a version called acoustic mines which went off at the sound of a ship’s engine. Sometimes, the mines were dropped on land by mistake – often in places where, if they exploded, they would kill many people and do an enormous amount of damamge. There they had to be disarmed or taken to pieces quickly before they could explode. This was very dangerous work for the experts.

Question 1.
Why did the Germans lay mines around Britain?
Answer:
The Germans wanted to destroy ships coming to Britain with food and ammunition.

Question 2.
What is a mine?
Answer:
Mines are bombs which would explode automatically when a ship came near them.

Question 3.
Why do mines on the land need urgent attention?
Answer:
Because, if they exploded, they would kill many people and do an enormous amount of damage.

Question 4.
What are acoustic mines?
Answer:
Acoustic mines are a type of mines which automatically went off at the sound of a ship’s engine.

Question 5.
What dangerous work did the experts have to do?
Answer:
The experts had to disarm the mines or dismantled (taken to pieces) quickly before they could explode.

Passage 3 :
Mr. Rajeev Sharma must realize that the PM was talking to the whole of India and not just the thinkers. In a speech that lasted about an hour, he touched upon subjects that he felt the people of India would like to listen to and probably act on his exhortations. On this he scored one hundred percent.

Sharma tore into the Indian psyche of being soft on male children as compared to female children. I am sure this will touch a chord in every set of parents and hopefully they will advise their male offspring to behave responsibly. All the other issues he touched upon would also directly affect the masses and the PM wanted positive action from his countrymen.

On internal security, defense and space, what could the people of India contribute if the PM had mentioned his plans? There is not much the Indian people can contribute directly in Space and Defense sectors. However, on internal security, he did indirectly touch upon it by exhorting all sections of society to shun all forms of violence, including communal.

A lot of internal security issues would get sorted out if the communities live in peace and harmony among themselves. On Defense and Space, the PM would definitely talk to the people involved in those activities, which he has done admirably so far. Also, there is no merit in outlining your strategies in critical sectors such as defense.

Question 1.
Who was the PM of India addressing?
a. The whole of India including the masses.
b. The thinkers of India.
c. The parents o f India.
d. The space scientists.
Answer:
a. The whole of India including the masses.

Question 2.
What did the PM want the parents to do?
Answer:
The PM wants the parents to advise their male offspring to behave responsibly.

Question 3.
The length of the speech delivered by the PM was …..
Answer:
About an hour

Question 4.
In what areas could Indian masses not contribute directly?
Answer:
a. Shun all forms of violence
b. Positive action from countryment
c. Parents advising their male children to behave responsibly.
d. In the defence and space sectors Ans: d. In the defence and space sectors

Question 5.
What was one of the PM’s solutions to solve internal security issues?
Answer:
Communities should live in peace and harmony among themselves.

Question 6.
Who felt there is no merit in outlining your strategies in critical sector such as defence?
a. Mr. Rajeev Sharma
b. The PM
c. The writer
d. The people of India
Answer:
c. The writer

English Summary

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