Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old Summary Notes

Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old About the Author

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was bom in Stratford – upon – Avon. His early education took place in the local Grammar School He went to London to seek his fortune and began his career as an actor. Very soon he established himself not only as an actor but also a poet and playwright. He had written 37 plays, 154 sonnets and two narrative poems.

Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old Summary

The given poem ‘Sonnet 104: To Me, Fair friend, you never can be old’ is penned by one of the greatest English poet William Shakespeare. Sonnet 104 is one of the poet’s sonnets dedicated to an unidentified young male friend of the poet.

“To me, fair friend, you never can be old,
For as you were when first your eye I ey’d,
Such seems your beauty still. Three winters cold
Have from the forests shook three summers’ pride,”

The poet begins the poem by declaring that ‘To me’, his unknown friend “never can be old’, because his friend’s beauty remained unchanged ever since he saw him with his eyes. The passing time had not taken toll on his friend’s beauty. Time had stood still; ever since he saw him for the first time three winters ago (three years before). Three cold winters had shaken the leaves ofthe trees in the forest and taken away the pride (glory) of three summers, but his friend’s beauty had never faded.

“Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn’d
In process of the seasons have I seen,
Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn’d
Since first I saw you fresh, which yet are green.”

In the second quatrain, Shakespeare dwells on the passing of time. He had seen the seasons change. Three beauteous springs had given way to ‘yellow autumn and the ‘April perfumes’ had made way to ‘hot junes’, when the sun shined very harshly in the sky.

Here Shakespeare is emphasizing that seasons change with time and beauty is also a fleeting quality. Beauty fades. But the poet clearly states that ‘Since first I saw you fresh, which yet are green’. His friend’s beauty is still ‘fresh’ and ‘green’. Nature is kind to him; the hands of time had left his beauty intact.

“Ah, yet doth beauty, like a dial – hand,
Steal from his figure, and no pace perceiv’d;
So your sweet hue, which methinks still doth stand,
Hath motion, and mine eye may be deceiv’d.”

In the third quatrain, raises doubts in his perception of his friend’s beauty. He says ‘Ah, yet’, he has realized that like everything else, beauty still moves forward, like the hands of a clock. Beauty Similarly his friends appearance – ‘your sweet hue’, which ‘methinks still doth stand’ – seemed unchanged to the poet.

But alas! beauty changes with the movement of time – ‘Hath motion’. The poet’s friend’s beauty had also changed with time but his eyes had deceived him to think that his friend’s beauty had not changed at all. The poet had simply perceived that his friend’s beauty was still ‘fresh and green’ but his friend was actually aging in those three years of their friendship.

“For fear of which, hear this, thou age unbred:
Ere you were born was beauty’s summer dead.”

In this couplet, the poet exaggerates his admiration for his friend’s beauty. He says that he is afraid that it may be true that his friend’s beauty had faded. So he proclaims to the still unborn generation- ‘thou age unbred’, who would read the sonnet in the future, that before they were bom ‘beauty’s summer’ was dead.

No beauty has ever equaled his friend’s beauty and appearance nor will anything in the fUture outshine his lovely appearance. They will not be able to judge what beauty is nor will they be able to make a comparison of beauty, because they will not be able to see his friend’s beauty in all its glory (beauty’s summer). By the time they will be bom, his friend’s beauty will have faded or rather he may be dead.

In Sonnet 104, Shakespeare glorifies the eternal beauty of his friend (His friend was supposed to be the Earl of Oxford). Everything in nature has been changed from green to yellow (from youth to old) by the power of time. Time mortalizes every being but the poet wants to immortalize the youth of his friend through his verses.

Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old Glossary

  • Beauteous: Wonderful, charming
  • Green: Youthfulness
  • Dial – hand: Hands of a clock
  • Sweet hue: Charming face
  • Unbred: Unborn, next generation readers
  • Summer dead: Death of beauty, handsomeness
  • Yellow autumn: Withering season
  • Ere: Before
  • Thou: You
  • Me thinks: It seems to me
  • Doth stand: Remains unchanged

Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old Questions and Answers

I. Answer the Following in one or two sentences (or as required)

Question 1.
What is a dial hand?
Answer:
The face of a clock.

Question 2.
Whom does the poet appreciate in the sonnet?
Answer:
The Poet appreciates the beauty ofhis young male friend in the Sonnet.

Question 3.
List the figures of speech in the poem?
Answer:

  • Alliteration: fair friend; eye I eyed.
  • Simile: Yet Abeauty, like a dial hand.
  • Hyperbole: Ere you were hem was beauty’s summer dead. To me, dear friend, you can never be old.
  • Personification: Shook three Summers pride Three April perfumes in three hot junes, Steal from his figure and no pace percieved.
  • Hyperbole: You can never be old
  • Metaphor: Smee first I saw you fresh, which yet are green

Question 4.
“Ere you were born was beauty’s summer dead”. Who do the words “you and summer dead” refer to?
Answer:
‘You’ refers to the future generations of readers who are yet to be born. ‘Summerdead’, refers to the death of beauty, handsomeness.

II. Answer the Questions in About a Page Each:

Question 1.
Write a note on the seasonsd of time mentioned in the sonnet?
Answer:
In the lines
” …………… Three winter cold
Have from the forests shook three summers pride, the poet implies that he had met his handsome male friend for the first time three years ago. In these three years ‘Three cold winters’ had shook the leaves of the trees in the forest and taken away the pride – glory of three summers.

In the lines,
“Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn’d
In process of the seasons have I seen
Three April perfumes in threee hot janes burn’d
Since first I saw you fresh, which yet are green”

Here the poet focuses on passing of time. Time passes continoustly through the changing of seasons, winter, summer, spring and so on. He wants to lay emphasis on the three years that have passed. In the natural cycle of seasons, indicating the passage of time, “Summers pride” gives way to ‘winter’s cold’and ‘beauteous springs’ give way to ‘yellow autumn’ and ‘April Perfumes’ give way to the ‘hot junes’. This lays emphasis on how time has passed.

Question 2.
Bring out the enduring friendship between the oet and his bosom friend?
Answer:
Sonnet 104 brings out the poets unbroken friendship with his friend an unknown young man, whom he had met three years before. He reveals his fond memories of his first meeting with the Earl of Southhampton He glorifies the eternal beauty of his friend Everything in nature has changed from green to yellow (from youth to old) by the power of time. Time mortalizes every being but the poet wants to immortaize the yourthfiil beauty of the friend through his verses.

Question 3.
How does the poet appreciate his friend’s handsomeness?
Answer:
The poet appreciates his friends beauty by declaring that, to him, his friend can never old. Eversince they had met three years ago, his friends beauty had remained unchanged. In those three years the seasons have changed but his friends beauty remains the same as he looked when they had met the first time.

Shakespeare realizes that he is decieving himself by thinking that his friend’s beauty has not changed. He is afraid that it may be true that his friends beauty has faded. So he wants to immortalize the youthful beauty of the friend in his poems.

III. Answer the Following in About a Page and Half:

Question 1.
Shakespeare’s Sonnet 104 expresses shis deep concern for endurance of his friendship. Discuss?
Answer:
In Sonnet 104, Shakespeare expresses his deep concern for endurance of his friendship. The poet had met a young man three years ago and he was enamoured by his beauty. He wanted to have an enduring friendship with this young man. He fondly recalls his first meeting with the Earl of Southhampton and thinks that his handsome friend was as beautiful as when he had first seen him.

It had been three years since they met, but the poet feels that even with the passage of time his friend appeared to be as handsome as he was three years ago. But he becomes apperhensive after he realizes that he had decieved himself thinking that his friends beauty had not faded. His infatuation with his friend’s beauty had clouded his perception.

He had percieved that his friend had not aged while the fact was that his friend had grown old in those three years and his beauty and also laded, changed. Everything in this world changes with the passage of time and so did his friends beauty. He is concerned that his friend will die without the world recognizing the exquisite beauty of his friend.

So he decided to immortolize his friends beauty in the words ofhis sonnets. In the Sonnet he proclaims to the still unborn generation of readers ofhis poems, that before they were bom ‘beauty’s summer’ – The glorious beauty ofhis friend was lost to hands of death.

No beauty has ever equaled his friends beauty and appearance nor will anything in the future outshine his lovely appearance. The yet to be bom generation will not be able to measure or make a comparison of beauty, because they had not been able to see his friend’s glorious beauty in his youth.

Question 2.
How does the poet glorify his friend’s handsomeness?
Answer:
In Sonnet 104 Shakespeare expresses his admiration and love for his friends beauty. He declares that ‘To me’, his friend “never can be old” because his friends beauty remained unchanged ever since he saw him for the first time, three years ago. The passing of time had not taken toll on his friends beauty.

Time had stood still eversince he saw him for the first time three winters ago. Three cold winters had shaken the leaves of the tree’s in the forest and taken away the pride (glory) of three summers, but unlike the changing seasons his friend’s handsomeness had never faded. He had observed the change in the seasons but to him his friends beauty had not faded. “Three beauteous springs” had made way to ‘hot junes’.

He emphasizes that seasons change with time and beauty is a fleeting quality, beauty fades. Conversly, to him, his friends beauty is still ‘fresh’ and ‘green’. Nature and time are kind to him. The hands of time had left his beauty intact. But Shakespeare realizes that he many have decieved himself by believing that his friend’s handsomeness, like everything else still moved forward, like the hands of a clock.

Beauty steals forward without any perceptibe motion. It fades unnoticed, similarly his friends appearance, his ‘ sweet hue ’ seemed unchanged to the poet, but alas! beauty changes with the movement of time. His friend’s beauty had also changed. He was so enamoured with his friend that he didn’t notice that his friend had aged in those three years. He had simply percieved that his friend’s beauty was still ‘fresh’ and ‘green’.

But his friend’s beauty had certainly changed. So the poet is afraid that it way be true that his friend beauty has laded. He wants to make his friends beauty immortal. He is afraid that his friend would die, his unnoticed by the world. So he proclaims to the still unborn generation of readers of his poetry that before they were bom ‘bea1 s summer’, the exquisite beauty of his friend was dead. No beauty ever equaled his friends beauty and appearance nor will anything in the future outshine his friend’s lovely apperance.

Question 3.
Explain the theme of the sonnet?
Answer:
Sonnet 104 belongs to the category of love poems about friendship since the poet, Shakespeare express his fond memories of his first meeting with his friend, who is supposed to be the Earl of Southhampton. The main theme of the poem is the inevitability of the passing of time, of beauty and enduring friendship or alternatively real beauty lasts forever.

The poet interweaves the symbols of changing seasons and months winter, summer, autumn, April and June. It represents how beauty is always moving forward like the time onaclock, i.e., beauty will slowly change with time. The poet has written the sonnet to glorify his friends beauty. Appreciating the beauty of his friend he percieves that his friends beauty has not changed even after ‘three years since they met for the first time.

But he realizes that he may be wrong, beauty is a quality that surely changes with the passing of time, ‘like a dial – hand / steal from his figure / and no pace percieved, Unnoticed by the poet the friend’s beauty had also faded, his friend had been ageing in those three years. The poet is so enamoured by his friend that he always pictures him as when he had first laid his eyes on him, but his friends beauty had in fact faded. In his fear that his friends beauty will go unsung he has immortilized his friend in his sonnets.

Sonnet 104 To me, Fair freind, you Never Can be Old Language Component

Essay Writing

Write an essay an the fallowing topics:

1. War

“War” is defined as a long standing armed conflict between two or more groups over resources, land, cultural differences, or other matters of contention. It is usually instigated following a public declaration of war, but undeclared wars are quite common in the form of surprise attacks. War is considered different from murder or genocide, because of the organization of the participants. War is a conflict among political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude.

Sociologists usually apply the term to such conflicts only if they are initiated and conducted in accordance with socially recognized forms. They treat war as an institution recognized in custom or in law. Military writers usually confine the term to hostilities in which the contending groups are sufficiently equal in power to render the outcome uncertain for a time.

Armed conflicts of powerful states with isolated and powerless peoples are usually called pacifications, military expeditions, or explorations; with small states, they are called interventions or reprisals; and with internal groups, rebellions or insurrections. Such incidents, if the resistance is sufficiently strong or protracted, may achieve a magnitude that entitles them to the name “war.”

There have been wars in all ages. Wars may be categorized as Philosophical, political, economic, technological, legal, sociological and psychological and Nationalism. War is an extremely complex social phenomenon that cannot be explained by any single factor or through any single approach. War is generally understood to embrace only armed conflicts on a fairly large scale, usually excluding conflicts in which fewer than 50,000 combatants are involved.

The Control of War

The international environment within which states and the people within them operate is regarded by many theorists as the major factor determining the occurrence and nature of wars. War remains possible as long as individual states seek to ensure self-preservation and promote their individual interests and in the absence of a reliable international agency to control the actions of other states rely on their own efforts.

It is no accident that reforms of the international system figure prominently in many prescriptions for the prevention of war. Whereas the reform of human propensities or of the state is bound to be a long drawn-out affair if it is at all possible, relatively straightforward partial reforms ofthe international system may produce significant restraints upon resorting to war, and a thorough reform could make war impossible.

Some theorists, being more optimistic about the nature of states, concentrate upon the removal of the fear and suspicion of other states, which is characteristic of the present as well as of all historical political systems; others, being less optimistic, think mainly of possible controls and restraints upon the behaviour of states. The underlying reasoning ofboth parties is generally similar.

If individual states in competitive situations are governed by a short term conception of their interests, acute conflicts between them will occur and will show a strong tendency to escalate. Thus, one state erects a tariff barrier to protect its industry against the competition of a trade partner, and the partner retaliates, the retaliatory interaction being repeated until the two countries find themselves in a trade war.

Armaments races show a similar tendency to escalate, particularly so in an age of rapid technobgbal change. The economic and scientific efforts necessary to avoid falling behind rivals in the invention and development of rapidly improving weapons of mass destruction have already reached unprecedented heights. And yet, neither trade wars nor arms races necessarily end in violent conflict. There seem to be operating some restraining and inhibiting factors that prevent an automatic escalation. Much of the theory of war concerns itself with the identification, improvement, and development of these restraining factors.

Diplomacy

The outcome of starkly competitive behaviour leading to wars is clearly against the interests of states, and it is rational for them to seek more desirable outcomes. If competitive behaviour is dangerous, theorists seek for alternative methods of cooperative behaviour that would not jeopardize the interests of the state through exposing it to the possibly less cooperative behaviour of others.

Some theorists concentrate upon improving the rationality of the decision making of individual states through a better understanding ofthe international environment, through eliminating misperceptions and irrational fears, and through making clear the full possible costs of engaging in war and the full destructiveness of an all-out war, possible in our age.

The relative paucity of wars and their limited nature throughout the century following the Napoleonic Wars (1815-1914) stirred great theoretical interest in the nature of the balance-of-power system of that period that is, in the process by which the power of competing groups of states tended toward a condition of equilibrium.

Contributing to the successful operation of the balance-of-power system of the 19th century were relatively slow technological change, great diversionary opportunities for industrial and colonial expansion, and the ideological and cultural homogeneity of Europe. Pursuit of a balance ofpower is a way of conducting foreign policy that is perhaps less prone to war than other types of policy because, instead of indiscriminately increasing their power, states increase it only moderately, so as not to provoke others; and instead of joining the strongest, they join the weaker side in order to ensure balance.

States in a balance-of-power system must, however, be ready to abide by constraints upon their behaviour in order to ensure stability of the system. The application to international relations of a bfanch of mathematics-game theory-that analyzes the strategy of conflict situations has provided a new tool of analysis. In state interaction, as in any game situation, one side’s strategy generally depends upon that side’s expectations of the other side’s strategy.

If all sides in a game are to maximize their chances of a satisfactory out come, it is necessary that some rational rules of behaviour be conceptualized and agreed upon, and this idea of a set of rational rules can be applied to competing states in the international system. Game theorists distinguish antagonistic situations called zero-sum games, in which one state’s gain can be only at the expense of another state because the “payoff’ is fixed.

Even then a mutually acceptable distribution of gains can be rationally reached on the basis of the “minimax” principle the party in a position of advantage satisfies itself with the minimum acceptable gain because it realizes that the other party, in a position of disadvantage, would yield on the basis of its possible minimum loss but would violently oppose a distribution even more to its detriment.

In other situations, called non-zero-sum games, the payoff is not constant but can be increased by a cooperative approach; the gain of one participant is not at the cost of another. The contestants, however, have to agree about the distribution of the gain, which is the product of their cooperation. The theory of games is the foundation of theories of bargaining that analyze the behaviour of individual states in interaction.

Diplomacy based upon such theories is less likely to lead to war. Policymakers pursuing such strategies will conduct conflicts of the zero-sum type so that war is avoided. More than that, with some skill, such situations can be transformed into the non-zero-sum type by introducing additional benefits accruing from cooperation in other interactions and also, more generally, by eliminating the likelihood of war and, consequently, by reducing the costs of preparing for one.

Regional Integration

Because wars within states have been eliminated through the establishment of suitable political structures, such as central governments that hold a monopoly of coercive power, many theories concentrate upon the establishment of parallel structures within the international context. Regional integration (cooperation in economic, social, and political affairs, as, for example, within the European Union) and the establishment of security communities (such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) have made much greater advances than attempts at the reformof the entire global international system.

Because conflicts among neighbours tend to be frequent, regional integration is an important advance toward reducing the incidence of war. Even if it were to become generally successful, however, regional integration would simply shift the problem of war to a different level: there would be fewer possibilities of war because intraregional conflicts would be contained, but interregional conflicts could still give rise to wars of much greater scope and severity. The phenomenon of war must, therefore, be analyzed at the universal level.

International law

Some of the most influential thinking about war and the international system has come from specialists in international law. All of them postulate that there exists an international society of states that accepts the binding force of some norms of international behaviour. These norms are referred to as international law, although they differ fundamentally from municipal law because no sovereign exists who can enforce them. Most international lawyers realistically accept that international law is, consequently, among rather than above states. It is, according to legal doctrine, binding on states but unenforceable.

International law concerns itself largely with two aspects of war: its legality and its regulation. As far as the legality of war is concerned, there arose in the 20th century a general consensus among states, expressed in several international treaties, including the Covenant of the League of Nations, the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, and the Charter of the United Nations, that resort to armed force, except in certain circumstances such as self-defense, is illegal.

Such a legalistic approach to the prevention of war, however, remains futile in the absence of a means of enforcement. The enforcement provisions of the United Nations Charter, which entail the application of military and economic sanctions, have never been applied successfully, owing to political disagreement among the major powers. This underlines the fact that legal norms, to be effective, must reflect an underlying political reality.

The United Nations

The United Nations is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. The several approaches to peace outlined in its Charter and developed in its practice are based upon and clearly reflect the cumulative development of the relevant theories of war.

Drawing heavily upon the experience of the League of Nations, the Charter develops three interrelated approaches: first, pacific settlement of disputes, which would leave nations with nothing to fight about; second, collective security, which would confront aggressors with too much to fight against; and third, disarmament, which would deprive them of anything substantial with which to fight.

Peaceful Settlement of Disputes

Pacific settlement of disputes is based upon the assumption that war is primarily a technique for settling disputes, although it can, of course, also serve other purposes, such as allaying fears and seeking status. Further assumptions are that war frequently comes about because of the unawareness of decision makers of the possibility of settling disputes peacefully to the mutual advantage of both sides an unawareness due to mere ignorance, pride, lack of imagination, or selfish and cynical leadership.

It is thus possible that international organizations can contribute to the prevention of wars by devising and institutionalizing alternative, peaceful techniques for the settlement of disputes and by persuading the states to use them. The scope of this approach is limited, for states are notoriously reluctant to abide by impartial findings on matters they regard as being of vital importance. Hence, what the procedures really offer is a means of slowing down the progression of a dispute toward war, giving reason a chance to prevail.

Collective Security

Collective security is an approach to peace involving an agreement by which states agree to take collective action against any state defined as an aggressor. Leaving aside the problems of settling disputes or enforcing law or satisfying justice, it concentrates upon forestalling violence by bringing to bear an overwhelmingly superior international force against any aggressor. Although collective
security, in somewhat different forms, played a prominent part in the League of Nations Covenant and is embodied in the United Nations Charter, it has completely failed in both cases.

Failing an international government capable of ultimately determining the issues, nations have not managed to agree on an unequivocal definition of aggression, have not in practice accepted the principle that aggression must be acted against independently of the identity of the perpetrator, and, therefore, have not established the international collective security force envisaged in the Charter.

Disarmament

Disarmament and limitation of armaments are based upon the theory that states are inclined to strive for dominance in arms over any potential rivals and that this leads to arms races that tend to end in war. The major besetting sin of this theory is that it often tends to confuse cause with effect.

Although arms races develop momentum of their own, they are themselves the result of political tensions leading to war. In short, it is the tensions that cause war, not the arms races. To hold otherwise is to mistake a symptom for a cause. Hence, reducing the levels of armaments does not necessarily reduce these tensions. Furthermore, it is the instability of strategic balances, rather than their level, that leads to war; agreements about disarmament or limitation of armaments may easily disturb the existing precarious balance and, therefore, be actually conducive to war.

Limiting Conflict

As these major approaches to peace envisaged in its Charter have not proved very fruitful, the United Nations has developed two new procedures aiming at the limitation, of wars. First, “preventive diplomacy,” largely comprising the diplomatic initiatives of the secretary-general and the stationing of peacekeeping forces, has served to contain local conflicts and to prevent escalation, especially the involvement ofthe superpowers.

Second, although the General Assembly’srecommendations have no legal binding force, they have become increasingly influential, for the assembly has become an important agency for what has been called the collective legitimization of state policies. Resort to war becomes more costly when a state is freed with the prospects of a collective condemnation.

This new restraint upon war does not, however, act upon conflicts that the assembly may favourably regard as wars of colonial liberation. Nor could the assembly’s disapproval be relied upon to deter states from waging war in pursuit of an interest they deemed to be truly vital.

World Government

Both the shortcomings and the limited practicability of all the approaches to the elimination of war through the reform of the international system have driven many thinkers to accept the idea that war can only be abolished by a full-scale world government.

No midway solution between the relative anarchy of independent, individual states and a world government with the full paraphernalia of legislative powers and of an overwhelming military force would provide a sufficiently stable international framework for the nations to feel that wars would not break out and thus stop them from behaviour that is often conducive to wars. In an age faced with the danger of a war escalating into a general extermination of mankind, the central importance of preserving peace is obvious and is generally accepted.

But here the thinkers divide. Some press on from this analysis to the logical conclusion that mankind must and, therefore, will establish a world government, and they advance ideas on how best to proceed in this direction. Others regard the world government as completely utopian, no matter how logical and desirable it may be. Yet, in terms of actual policies, the adherents of the two schools do not necessarily divide.

Whether they do or do not believe that world government is attainable, they agree that the complex phenomenon of war represents a potential calamity of such a magnitude that all theorists must endeavour to understand it and to apply their understanding to the prevention and mitigation of war with all the means at their disposal.

2. TERRORISM

The systematic use of unpredictable violence or terror against individuals, public or governments to attain a political motive is called terrorism. Terrorism, or cult of the gun and killing, is rather a new phenomenon in world history. It has become a global issue and is the most isolated of so many other socio-political evils associated with the country because it is “breaking away’ from the main stream, a section of the people who resort to use the force of arms to overwhelm their opponent.

It is a challenge to the authority of the state and a revolt against the entire social-political order of the day in decisive manner. Terrorism has created a panic situation in the whole world, It has ‘grown of time’ and not all of a sudden. There are so many social-political and economic factors responsible for the rise of terrorism. On the one hand unemployment, regionalism, communalismhave promoted it while on the other hand politics has inflamed it.

Sometimes communal organizations use the unemployed youth for the purpose of spreading violence in society in order to disrupt the established social system. They do this to achieve success in their unlawful demands. The youths are motivated in a negative direction and they are shown their bright future in the act of terrorism. Sometimes political leaders use these youths in order to achieve their political ambitions against some other parties or leaders.

Later on it takes a dangerous turn and becomes beyond control, even for its creators, for example we can see Osama Bin Laden who once was used and promoted by the U.S.A. against Russia and later on Osama became the greatest threat to its creator the U.S.A-. In India too, we have witnessed such a situation when once terrorists were promoted in Punjab by the then ruling party and its leader, which later on proved to be a suicidal step for the ruling party.

In this way terrorism has spread world wide. It has no boundary, no emotion, no feeling. It can occur anywhere anytime in any form against anyone no matter whether it is mosque in Karachi (Pakistan), Akshardham temple in Gujarat (India). World Trade Center (USA) or school children of Russia.

It can take any criminal step to put its pressure on the government or on the society. Kidnapping, mass-killing, bomb- blast etc. are some of its activities through which it aims at achieving its goal.

1995 was the year which can be said to be the period when terrorism emerged evidently as a major threat to modem civilization. For the first time it became clear that the new breed of terrorists see the entire civilized world, including moderate Muslim regions, as a threat to their global aims. It is not just countries like India that are a target.

Previously it was presumed that terrorist violence would be restricted to Kashmir only. But this presumption has been proved baseless and now it is clear that terrorism views all civilized countries with a liberal tradition as fair game for the spread of terror. Attack on Parliament in New Delhi and J&K Assembly were the most horrible terrorist’s attack.

Previously it was presumed that terrorist violence would be restricted to Kashmir only. But this presumption has been proved baseless and now it is clear that terrorism views all civilized countries with a liberal tradition as fair game for the spread of terror. Attack on Parliament in New Delhi and J&K Assembly were the most horrible terrorist’s attack.

On the whole, terrorists have no ideology. It is more an expression of anger overpercieved injustices to minority religious and ethnic community by the majority community and a symbol of assertion of feelings of separateness ofthe agrieved community. Inspite of world-wide condemnation and efforts to control it is growing day by day. The terrorists can be said to be glasses to be handled with care.

Neither force nor any condemnation can suppress them. They need emotional touch from the society because terrorism is the misguided zeal of the youth power which can be brought to the main stream of the society only through a healing touch. We must realize it and raise a human consciousness to deal this problem sensibly.

The systematic use of unpredictable violence or terror against individuals, public or governments to attain a political motive is called terrorism. Terrorism, or cult of the gun and killing, is rather a new phenomenon in world history.

It has become a global issue and is the most isolated of so many other socio-political evils associated with the country because it is “breaking away’ from the main stream, a section of the people who resort to use the force of arms to overwhelm their opponent.

It is a challenge to the authority of the state and a revolt against the entire social-political order of the day in decisive manner. Terrorism has created a panic situation in the whole world, It has ‘grown of time’ and not all of a sudden. There are so many social-political and economic factors responsible for the rise of terrorism. On the one hand unemployment, regionalism, communalismhave promoted it while on the other hand politics has inflamed it.

Sometimes communal organizations use the unemployed youth for the purpose of spreading violence in society in order to disrupt the established social system. They do this to achieve success in their unlawful demands. The youths are motivated in a negative direction and they are shown their bright future in the act of terrorism. Sometimes political leaders use these youths in order to achieve their political ambitions against some other parties or leaders.

Later on it takes a dangerous turn and becomes beyond control, even for its creators, for example we can see Osama Bin Laden who once was used and promoted by the U.S.A. against Russia and later on Osama became the greatest threat to its creator the U. S. A. In India too, we have witnessed such a situation when once terrorists were promoted in Punjab by the then ruling party and its leader, which later on proved to be a suicidal step for the ruling party.

In this way terrorism has spread world wide. It has no boundary, no emotion, no feeling. It can occur anywhere anytime in any form against anyone no matter whether it is mosque in Karachi (Pakistan), Akshardham temple in Gujarat (India), World Trade Center (USA) or school children of Russia.

It can take any criminal step to put its pressure on the government or on the society. Kidnapping, mass-killing, bomb- blast etc. are some of its activities through which it aims at achieving its goal.

1995 was the year which can be said to be the period when terrorism emerged evidently as a major threat to modem civilization. For the first time it became clear that the new breed of terrorists see the entire civilized world, including moderate Muslim regions, as a threat to their global aims. It is not just countries like India that are a target.

Previously it was presumed that terrorist violence would be restricted to Kashmir only. But this presumption has been proved baseless and now’ it is clear that terrorism views allcivilized countries with a liberal tradition as fair game for the spread of terror. Attack on Parliament in New Delhi and J&K Assembly were the most horrible terrorist’s attack.

Recently the killing of school children in North Ossetia in Russia has shaken the whole world, for this time it seems that terrorism has developed up to such extent that innocence, love, affection, childhood, a child’s wails and pleadings, etc. are nothing known to it. It has crossed all limits this time and is an indication to the world for its ultimate devastation.

On the whole, terrorists have no ideology. It is more an expression of anger overpercieved injustices to minority religious and ethnic community by the majority community and a symbol o f assertion of feelings of separateness of the agrieved community. Inspite of world wide condemnation and efforts to control it is growing day by day. The terrorists can be said to be glasses to be handled with care.

Neither force nor any condemnation can suppress them. They need emotional touch from the society because terrorism is the misguided zeal of the youth power which can be brought to the main stream of the society only through a healing touch. We must realize it and raise a human consciousness to deal this problem sensibly.

3. POPULAR FILMS

Since its beginning in India with the film RAJA HARISCHANDRA (1913), the cinema has remained a very important medium of mass communication. In its ability to combine entertainment with communication of ideas, it leaves the other media far behind in reach and appeal. Also, like literature, it has mirrored differrent times and has left an impact an successive generations. Any work of art reflects the conditions of the society in which it is born, and the hopes and aspirations, the frustrations and the contradictions present in any given social order. Cinema is no exception.

The wide mass appeal of the cinema has invested it with a great deal of Social influence. The nature of its influence good or bad – naturally depends upon the social awareness of the people involved in it – the film – makers, the artisty, the audience and the government.

Should cinema as an art form be required to have social responsibility? Social reponsibility involves behaving in a manner that does not impair the value of society, does not lead to disintegration of society or cause it to become degraded in any way cinema may be socially responsible by depicting reality. At the same time, with its power of influence – and here we are accepting the view that the audio visual measium has the power to influence the viewer – it could easily gather support for.

Over the years, Indian cinema has lost touch with social responsibility and has become a slave to the ‘box office Syndrome.’ Now crass commercial considerations cloud film making. It is all a question of hits and flops at the box office ‘Right’ ingredients are squeezed in necessarily or unnecessarily, into the films to make a hit without thinking that these ingredients – Sex, violence, etc., cause great injury to the Social fabric and the people. The low aesthetic quality of today’s films is directly proportional to the large number of unscrupulous, fly-by-night producers who are intersted merely in profit – making without any concern for the society.

An audience’s right to entertainment is quite just. It is also true. That a majority of the audience today demands cheap entertainment afforded by the display of violence, sex and obscenity in films. The general public has little interest in realistic ‘art’ movies and is only attracted by thymes something the low – budget movies cannot indulge in. The government also does not seem to the ritualistic vard giving ceremonies, film – fetivals and tax concessions for pious sentiments suchas secularism and patriotism.

The censor board’s ambiguous standards do not help matters much for the censor board, kissing is obscene, butrapes, gruesome killing and vulgar dialogues do not invite the scissors. The overall result is that a majority of fibnstoday are juvenle stuff devoid of any squal purpose, relevance or significance.

Today, the portrayal of women in Indian films has touched the nadir. There are few films in which heroines have been required to play stellar roles. She is an atrociously made up piece, required to dance, sing, expose and vanish. Revenge fcemg the leit motif of
most films, sheis frequently rapedandtte hero vows to takerevenge.

This reinforces the feeling ofgirb and women that they are weak, unimportant, and the world of males is after their body and vanity. This perverse depiqtion of women as glamorous propsal objects of titiflation and victims of violence, and of this violence exciting and adventourous act could well be partly responsible for the, increasing atrocities against women.

The stunning luxuries of filmi villains and their varied methods of collecting wealth help people to overlook the tendency to make fast money by hook or by crook. This is, consequently, eroding the social norms and values which are generally established in a society after great industry and pain.

When films glamorise violence, the impressionable minds inthe audienejp feel tempted to imitate it in real life. Further more, the extra Brand sophastieated styles shown in the films, and the meracurialrise of the hero from rags to riches, heighten the aspirations Of all and sundry but there in naturally a wide gap between such aspirations and their fulfilment. Hence, the great frustrations pervasive in society.

One does not ask for ‘social reform’ from cinema, but it should atleast eschew depriving the society of what it already has. The the film – makers is to form a discriminating and well – informed public opinion. In this respect, the role of film – critics becomes important.

They can teach readers and viewers, how to discriminate between the good and the bad films. The most important critirion on which they can base their judgement is the social relevance of what is exposed to the view in the films. In a country like Injin, with a high percentage of illiteracy and poverty, cirema has an important role to play. It has unqualified potential to inform and educate people’s minds.

4. IMPACT OF MOBILE PHONES ON STUDENTS

The adoption of the mobile phone by young people has been a global phenomenon in recent years. It is now an integral part of youngsters daily lives and is for the majority, the most popular form of electronic communication. In fact, the mobile phone has turned from a technological tool to a social tool.

The whole world is accepting and adopting the ways towards the advancement of technology. The youth is playing a vital role in this rapid pace. The mobile phone had been in existence for about decade before young people really adopted this technology. The reduction in the cost of the handsets, their smaller size and the introduction of the pre-paid phone card in the 1990s contributed to the surprisingly rapid adoption rate by young people. Surveys have consistently shown that young people even prefer their mobile phone to television or the Internet.

The mobile phone is a status symbol for young people. The features of the phone, the appearance and personalised accessories all attest to the phone s status, with sixty percent of young people reporting they were keen to upgrade their mobile phone It is seen as a fashion accessory that satisfies the need for individualisation by having choices in mobile wallpaper, ring tones, phone covers, carry bags and other accessories and yet also signifies being part of the peer group Indeed, even the ownership of a mobile phone indicates that one is socially connected, accessible and in demand. It can also be seen as a symbol of prestige.

The impact of the mobile phone on young people speer groups has been extensive. Adolescence is a Increasing influence of the peer group and communication amongst peer group members is central to the identity of the individual. The impact ofthe mobile phone on peer relationships has transformed the peer group into a truly networked society One of the main stated reasons for young people s use of the mobile phone is functionality or “micro coordination” of their social life.

Adolescence is a time of exceeding the family boundaries and generating more As all social life is based on ongoing interpersonal interaction, the fixed telephone been an essential instrument to enable young people to organize their social life In study conclude that this ability to communicate has been extended further by the use of the mobile phone which not only enables coordination free from the constraints of physical proximity, but also of spatial immobility; that is, the need to stay at specific places.

The ability of the mobile phone to directly contact a person allows young people even more flexibility and spontaneity in their lives, functions extremely quickly which leads to a “more fluid culture of information social interaction”. However, the most important impact the mobile phone has had, is to connect young people and their peer group.

Even the functional use of the mobile phone is intertwined with the relational use; that is, it serves to link peers more closely to one another even more than the fixed phone, as it is done without adult interference. High school students reported that the most important reason for using a mobile phone was to talk and text with friends One of the most cited reasons that parents want their children to have a mobile phone is for safety.

In a survey, parents reported that as their child had a mobile phone, they knew where they were at anytime. There was one parent however, who acknowledged that this was only a perception. There needs to be trust in the parental child relationship, in that the child will be truthful in reporting their location. This study also found that parents reported at least one occasion when they needed to urgently contact their child but were unable to do so. Conversely, young people also reported that they were unable to contact their parents urgently mainly because they were out of credit.

However, along with these positive impacts, there are negative aspects to young people’s mobile phone use. Unfortunately the countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh have strong cultural values, rules and custom’s that are easily fettered by the western cultural onslaught. Our youth is concentrating on some bad choices.

The telecommunication companies in our country have been inclined towards introducing new and attractive packages for youth All necessary and normal interactions can be dealt with during daytime but the companies offer the packages that start after end of family or business communication. My feeling is that these packages are more likely to spoil and destroy our youth than to do anything else. In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages.

They are losing the essence of their studies. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents. They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents.

It is interesting to note that there are few common family rules about young people’s use of the mobile phone. In- fact, many young people reported that there were no rules set by their parents about their mobile phone use, and only reported that their parents used removal of their mobile phones as punishment. A survey reported that young people were threatened by their parents, with the phone being confiscated, as a form of punishment in India.

It has been found that some young people s sleep is disturbed when friends call them on their mobile. There have also been anecdotal reports of young people texting under bedcovers at night and using their mobile phones as their alarm clock and torch. Probably because of the sleeping issue it has been found that the most common rule set by parents was that children have to leave their mobile phones out of their rooms at night. Their parents frequently had to ask them to stop using their mobile phone late at night with saying that this was the most common disagreement between them and their parents.

It has been found that some young people s sleep is disturbed when friends call them on their mobile. There have also been anecdotal reports of young people texting under bedcovers at night and using their mobile phones as their alarm clock and torch. Probably because of the sleeping issue it has been found that the most common rule set by parents was that children have to leave their mobile phones out of their rooms at night. Their parents frequently had to ask them to stop using their mobile phone late at night with saying that this was the most common disagreement between them and their parents.

In this fast moving world mobile phones and usage is an unavoidable part of life. Each and every day the technology is updating. Now we have the world is in our finger tips. Here we like to focus more on the scope, by this we can know about the students approach towards the mobile and how much it influences their life and also helps to identify what type of function which they are really interested. The usage will vary from one person to another. The usage of mobile phones among the students has increased to a great extent. Mobile phones are not considered as a device for communication alone but it is considered as a media for entertainment.

5. TELEVISION

Today, we are living in a world dominated by the media. The mass media, especially television, is increasingly occupying the central stage in our lives. Most homes in cities have access to television, indeed, more than one set to meet the needs of different members in the family. With provision for 24 – hour – telecast and many channels, exposure to television in increasing and is particulartly high among children.

TV a powerful tool of communication:

TV provides a concentrated focus and the boundaries of the screen, setting off the behaviour from its surrounding context, can result in stronger stimulus to imitative learning does real – life observation.

TV Colours perspective of real life:

Research in the US has found that there exists strong associations between patterns of dramatic entertainment and viewers conceptions of social reality. Heavy viewers respond more in terms of TV world – more distrust of people, exaggerated sense of danger, etc.

Other factors moderate TV influence:

Other researchers have found that perceptions varied from person to person. The degree of reality perceived in a television programme by a viewer depends on several other factors – the viewer’s sex, age, economic status, environment and so on. Viewers perceptions also differ depending on their current state – fatigue, relaxed, etc. More important factors influencing perceptions of programme realism is their enduring traits – intelligence, perceptual styles, set of values, receptive capacity; and all these are closely linked to the age of the viewer.

Conclusion:

Television can have effect on viewers and thus society, under certain conditions – recurrence from programme to programme of values or ideas; dramatic presentation of values so that they evoke primarily emotional reactions; presentation of values which link with the individual’s immediate needs and interests; an uncritical attachment to the medium. The inpact is likely to be greater when the individual has not already been supplied through his immediate environment with a set of values which provides a standard against which to assess the views offered by television.

English Summary

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