The Toys of Peace Summary Notes

The Toys of Peace Author

Hector Hugh Munro (Dec 18, 1870 – Nov 14, 1916) was a witty British author who published under the pen name SAKI or H.H. Munro. The inspiration for the pen name “Saki” is unknown, it may be based upon a character in a poem or on a South American monkey. Given Munro’s intellect, wit, and mischievous nature it’s possible it was based on both simultaneously. As a writer, Munro (Saki) was a master of the short story form and is often compared to O. Henry and Dorothy Parker. E.F. Benson shares , his sardonic style.

Munro was born in Akyab, Burma (now known as Myanmar) in 1870. In 1872 while she was on a trip to England, his mother Mary was charged by a cow. She suffered a miscarriage, never recovered, and died in 1872 when Munro was only two years old. After her death, the Munro children were sent from Burma back to England where they lived with their grandmother and aunts in a strict puritanical household. In his early career, Munro became a police officer in India and was posted to Burma where he contracted malaria before returning to England in 1895.

When the war broke out, Munro refused a commission to join the British armed forces as a regular trooper where he was certain to see the battle. He was killed in action by a German sniper. His last words were reported as, “Put that bloody cigarette out!” In one of those unfortunate twists of fate, the papers that Munro had left behind were destroyed by his sister Ethel, who wrote her own account of their childhood. Munro never married and may have been gay, but homosexuality was a crime in Britain during Munro’s lifetime and the decorum of the times would have required him to keep that part of his life secreted away.

Munro had a penchant for mocking the popular customs and manners of Edwardian England. He often did so by depicting characters in a setting and manner that would contrast their behavior with that of the natural world; often demonstrating that the simple and straightforward rules of nature would always trump the vanities of men. This is demonstrated gently in The Toys of Peace where parents from Edwardian England are taught a lesson that is still familiar to modem parents. He demonstrates it with striking clarity in The Interlopers and The Open Window, both of which we recommend as two of his best stories.

Munro died in France during World War I, on November 13, 1916, by German sniper fire during the Battle of Ancre. Though he was too old to enlist at 43, he had managed to gain a post in the 22nd Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers, where he was a lance- sergeant. According to several sources, his last words were “Put that bloody cigarette out!” We feature his futuristic novel about German-occupied London When William Came in World War I Literature.

The Toys of Peace Summary

The short story ‘The Toys of Peace’ is written by the British author Hector Hugh Munro. It is a humorous story that satirizes 1914, a campaign by the National Peace Council, a coordinating committee of antiwar organizations, against violent toys.

In the story, Eleanor Bope, the Mother of two young sons presents her brother with a newspaper cutting of 19th March, about children’s toys which influence the parental ideas of upbringing children. The newspaper cutting reads that the National Peace council strongly objected to parents giving their children toys, soldiers, even though boys loved warfare and all the ‘Panoply’ – the impressive collection or display of warfare. Hence, to dissuade parents from inciting violent behavior in their children, the National Peace Council would be exhibiting “Peace toys” at the Children’s Welfare exhibition as alternatives to violent toys.

Eleanor Bopes’ brother Harvey had his own doubts about the peace council idea but found it interesting and agreed with its intentions. Eleanor asks Harvey to buy her sons Eric and Bertie, aged ten and nine, to bring some toys of civilian figures which present more peaceful aspects, that Easter. She hoped that her brother’s Easter toys would direct her children’s minds away from violence.

That Easter, Eleanor’s two little children watch their uncle unpack their gifts with much curiosity and excitement. At first, Harvey brings out a ‘square, rather featureless’ toy building. Bertie assumes that it is a fort and Eric disagrees saying that it’s the palace of Mpret of Albania. Because it has no windows so that passers-by can’t fire at the Royal Family. Harvey tells them that it is a municipal dust-bin for garbage collection, and explains that it keeps the city clean and prevents ill-health of the people. Next, Harvey takes out a tiny lead figure of a man in black clothes and tells them that it is the image of John Stuart Mill, the political economist.

Next Harvey brings out the model of the Manchester branch of the young Women’s Christian Association and the figure of Robert Raikes, who founded the Sunday Schools and a model of a Municipal wash – house. He further brings out the figure of civilian officials such as a sanitary inspector, district councilor, and an officer at the Local Government Board. He also presents them with models of industrial tools and equipment such as the wheelbarrow, a hoe, a sewer ventilator, a municipal dust-bin and a model of an art school and public library, and many other civilian figures such as the poet, Mrs. Heman’s, Rowland Hill, the pioneer of Penny Postage and that of the famous astrologer, Sir John Herschel.

Eric wanted to know how they were supposed to play with the civilian figures. Harvey asks them to play a mock election contest for a parliamentary seat. The little boys agree enthusiastically imagining bloody fights with rotten eggs and many injured heads and noses oozing blood and drunken brawls in the streets. Harvey pacifies them and explains the general process of an election.

The little boys felt bored and lose interest in the toys and decide to study a chapter in history that taught them about the Bourbon period of France, The boys tell Harvey that they have already studied about Louis the fourteenth and Eric already knows about all the important battles fought during the rule of Louis the Fourteenth. Harvey was aghast at their knowledge and focus on the violence in historical events. So he tries to draw their attention away from violence. He informs them that Louis was also admired as a landscape gardener and his designs were copied all over Europe. Harvey then goes to the library and wonders whether history can be taught in elementary schools without mentioning battles, murderous intrigues, and other forms of violence.

Harvey returns later to check on the boys and finds them playing. Using the new toys, they have improvised a French invasion of Manchester. Robert Raikes is now Louis XIV, and other civilian figures are being used to represent the soldiers and the casualties. The municipal dust bin has been converted into a fort. The soldiers attack the Young Women’s Christian Association and abduct the girls. J. S. Mill, in the part of Marshal Saxe, is stabbed by one of the girls. Bertie splashes red ink to illustrate the bloody death. He then proceeds to pour red ink all over the YWCA building as the soldiers massacre a hundred girls in revenge.

Harvey quietly goes to his sister and declares that the experiment was a failure because they had begun it too late.

The Toys of Peace Glossary

The National Peace Council: Founded in 1908, and disbanded in 2000, acted as the coordinating body for almost 200 groups across Britain, with a membership ranging from groups to national trade unions and local authorities, the groups were all united in their interest in peace, human rights, justice, and the environment, this group originated in 1904 or 1905 as the National Council of Peace Societies, but it was permanently established, as the National Peace Council, after the 17th Universal Peace Conference took place in London in 1908.

Dreadnought: the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.

The Hague: are a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

Siege of Adrianople: The Battle or Siege of Adrianople (1912 – 13) was fought during the First Balkan War, beginning in mid – November 1912 and ending on 26 March 1913 with the capture of Edirne (Adrianople) by the Bulgarian 2nd Army. The loss of Time delivered the final decisive blow on the Ottoman army and brought to a close the First Balkan War. A treaty was signed in London on 30 May. The city was reoccupied and kept by Turkey in the Second Balkan War.

Whigs: Apolitical fiction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

The Reform Bills: A series of proposals to reform voting in the British parliament, these include the Reform Acts of 1832,1867, and 1884. The bills reformed voting by increasing the electorate for the House of Commons and removing certain inequalities in representation.

The Somaliland Camel Corps (SCC): also referred to as the Somali Camel Corps, was a unit oftheBritishArmy based in British Somaliland. It lasted from the early 20th century until 1944.

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy.

Inkerman: A city in the Crimean peninsula, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine.

Louis XIV: also popularly known as the Sun King (5 September 1638- 1 September 1715) was the King of France and King of Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death. He was a king for 72 years. This was the longest recorded rule of any European monarch. He is often seen as the typical example of absolutism.

Robert Raikes : (14 September 1736 – 5 April 1811) was an English philanthropist and Anglican layman noted for his promotion of Sunday schools.

Felicia Dorothea Hemans : (25 September 1793 – 16 May 1835) was an English poet.

Sir Rowland Hill: (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor, and social reformer, he campaigned for a comprehensive reform of the postal system, based on the concept of Uniform Penny Post and his solution of prepayment, facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap transfer of letters. Hill later served as a government postal official, and he is usually credited with originating the basic concepts of the modem postal service, including the invention of the postage stamp.

Sir John Frederick William Herschel: (7 March 1792 -1 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer, who also did valuable botanical work. He was the son of Mary Baldwin and astronomer William Herschel, nephew of astronomer Caroline Herschel and the father of twelve children.

William Hogarth : (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called “modem moral subjects”, perhaps best known being his moral series.

Jeanne Becu, Comtesse du Barry : (19 August 1743 – 8 December 1793) was the last mistress of Louis XV of France and one of the victims of the Reign of terror during the French Revolution The Spanish Armada: A Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from La Coruna in early summer 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.

Battle of Waterloo: A battle in Belgium in 1815 in which the British and Prussians defeated the French under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon abdicated as emperor a few days after this final defeat, and a few weeks later he was captured and sent into exile.

Francoise d’Aubigne, Marquise de Maintenon: (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719) was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France. She was known during her first marriage as Madame Scarron, and subsequently as Madame de Maintenon.

Marshal Saxe: A French marshal who distinguished himself in the War of the Austrian Succession (1696 – 1750). qui vive: on the alert or lookout, “duty requires the earnest liberal to spend most of his time on the qui vive for fascism”.

‘L’etatc’estmoi’ (i’ am the state’): Louis XIV was called the Grand Monarch or Sun King Louis XIV brought France to its peak of absolute power and his words ‘L’ etatc’estmoi’ (‘I am the state’) express the spirit of a rule in which the king held all political authority.

The Toys of Peace Questions & Answers

Question 1.
What exciting news did Eleanor want Harvey to read from the London newspaper?
Answer:
Eleanor Bope wanted her brother, Harvey to read the newspaper cutting about children’s toys which carried out her ideas about influence and upbringing

Question 2.
What were the views of the National Peace Council according to the extract?
Answer:
Views of the NATIONAL PEACE COUNCIL

  • Objections to presenting the boys with regiments of fighting men, a battery of guns, and squadrons of dreadnoughts
  • The council sees that there is no reason for encouraging Primitive instincts of love for fighting and all the panoply of war, among the boys.
  • The peace council recommends parents give their children ‘Peace toys’ as an alternative to toys that promote war and violence.

Question 3.
Boys, the National Peace Council admits, naturally love
a. fighting and all the panoply of war
b. Playing with dolls
c. running and jumping
Answer:
a. fighting and all the panoply of war

Question 4.
Where and when would the children’s Welfare Exhibition open?
Answer:
The Children Welfare Exhibition would open at Olympia in three week’s time (from 19th of March)

Question 5.
What are the alternative suggestions suggested by the Peace council?
Answer:
The alternative suggestions suggested by the Peace Council –

  • Miniature civilians instead of miniature soldiers.
  • Plows and the tools of industry instead of guns.

Question 6.
How did the Peace Council make alternative suggestions to parents?
Answer:
The Peace council made alternative suggestions to parents through a press release in a London Morning Paper of the 19th of March.

Question 7.
What suggestion does Eleanor make to Harvey regarding the opportunity to inaugurate the new experiment of using peace toys?
Answer:
Eleanor Bope suggested her brother Harvey should visit toy shops and buy any little toys and models that have a special bearing on civilian life in its more peaceful aspects and present them to the boys, that Easter.

Question 8.
What kind of toys did Eleanor want Harvey to buy for the children during Easter?
Answer:
Eleanor wants Harrey to buy any little toys and models that have a special bearing on civilian life in its more peaceful aspects.

Question 9.
Which character comes up with the idea of purchasing “peace toys” for the boys in “The Toys of Peace?”
L Harvey
ii. Eleanor
iii. Bertie
iv. Eric
Answer:
ii. Eleanor

Question 10.
What toy had Aunt Susan sent the children earlier? What made her take the toy away from the children?
Answer:
Aunt Susanhadsent the ‘Siege ofAdrienople’toy. She decided to take the toy away from the children because she overheard them using what seemed to be the most objectionable language, even though the children said they were Bulgarian words of command.

Question 11.
The names of the two young boys were _________ and ________. They were ________ and ________ years old.
Answer:
The names of the two young boys were Eric and Bertie and They were eleven and nine – and – half years old.

Question 12.
What primitive instincts and hereditary aspects had to be taken into consideration according to the uncle?
Answer:
According to the uncle the primitive instinct and hereditary tendencies to be taken into consideration were that one of their great-uncles fought in the most intolerant fashion at Inkerman and his feats were given a special mention (highlighted) in dispatches, (an official report in state or military affairs). One of the childrens’ great-grandfathers had smashed all his Whig neighbor’s hothouses when the great reform bill was passed. Harvey implied that the children may have inherited their attraction to violence from their forefathers and hence it may be not easy to turn them away from their primitive instincts (violent behavior).

Question 13.
What did the boys anticipate when Eleanor announced that they had “the newest things in toys” as an Easter gift?
Answer:
They expected their uncle to bring then a toy set of Albanian soldiery and a Somali camel – corps.

Question 14.
How did Harvey want to impress the boys with regard to the municipal dustbin? What did they think about it?
Answer:
Harvey told the boys that the municipal dust-bin was used to collect the refuse and litter of a town, instead of them lying about and injuring the health of the citizens. Bertie assumed that it was a fort and Eric proudly declared that it was the palace of the Mpret of Albania, so, on hearing their uncle tell them that it was a Municipal dustbin they did not show any response and grew disinterested.

Question 15.
Name some of the peace toys bought by Harvey.
Answer:
The ‘Peace Toys’ that Harvey brought were of

  • A distinguished civilian, John Stuart mill – an authority on Political Economy.
  • A model of the Manchester branch of the Young Women’s Christian Association.
  • A civilian named Robert Raikes founded Sunday Schools.
  • A model of a Municipal Washhouse.
  • Little round loaves baked in a sanitary bakehouse.
  • A Sanitary inspector, a district collector, and an official of the Local Government Board.
  • A Wheelbarrow and a hoe
  • A model beehive.
  • A Ventilator for sewers
  • Amodel of a School of Art and Public library.
  • A little lead figure of Mrs. – Hemans; a poetess.
  • A figurine of Rowland Hill, who introduced Penny Postage
  • Afigure of Sir John Herschel, an eminent astrologer.

Question 16.
How, according to the children, could one make two people contest a seat in Parliament?
Answer:
According to the children, two people could contest an election by competing with each other using rotten eggs, free fights, and many broken heads. There would be a lot of nose bleeding in the aftermath of violence. Everybody would be drunk to their noses while campaigning.

Question 17.
What was the holiday task given to the children?
Answer:
The boys had to learn about the Bourbon Period in France.

Question 18.
It was possible for Harvey to compile a history, for use in elementary schools, in which there should be no prominent mention of battles, massacres, murderous intrigues, and violent deaths. True/False?
Answer:
False.

Question 19.
What holiday task did the boys have to do for the History class?
Answer:
The boys had to learn about the Bourbon Period in France. They already knew something about Louis the Fourteenth and also had learned the names of all the principal battles fought during that period.

Question 20.
Studying historic battles and playing war games go hand in hand. Did it influence the boys? Explain.
Answer:
Yes, the boys were certainly influenced by their knowledge of historic battles. They improvised the ‘Peace toys’ to that of the characters of generals, commanders, and soldiers and started playing war games with them.

The figure of Robert Raikes in knee-breeches was converted into the figure of Louis the Fourteenth after they painted his coat with purple color. The figure of Mrs. Hemans was converted into that of Madame de Maintenon after her heels were painted red. The Municipal dust-bin had been pierced with holes to accommodate the muzzles of imaginary cannons and now represented the principal fortified position in Manchester. John Stuart Mill had been dipped in red ink and was made to stand for Marshal Saxe.

After converting the ‘Peace Toys’ into characters of war, they start playing the mock war – a game in which Louis orders his troops to surround the YWCA and seize the inmates.

Thus they proved that studying historic battles and playing war games went hand in hand.

Question 21.
What imaginative ways do the boys find to use the “peace toys” in their war games?
Answer:
The boys improvised the ‘Peace toys’ to that of the characters of generals, commanders and soldiers and started playing war games with them.

The figure of Robert Raikes in knee-breeches was converted into the figure of Louis. The Fourteenth after they painted his coat with purple colour, the figure of Mrs. Hemans was converted into that of Madame de Maintenon after her heels were painted red. The Municipal dust-bin had been pierced with holes to accommodate the muzzles of imaginary cannons and now represented the principal fortified position in Manchester; John stuart Mill had been dipped in red ink and was made to stand for Marshal Saxe.

After converting the ‘Peace Toys’ into characters of war they start playing the mock war – game in which Louis orders his troops to surround the YWCA and seize the inmates.

Question 22.
What did Harvey see when he went back to the boy’s room, to check how they were getting on with their peace toys?
Answer:
Municipal dust-bin’had been pierced with holes to accommodate the muzzles of imaginary cannons and now represented the principal fortified position in Manchester. John stuart Mill had been dipped in red ink and was made to stand for Marshal Saxe.

After converting the ‘Peace Toys’ into characters of war they had started playing the mock war – game in which Louis orders his troops to surround the YWCA and seize the inmates.

Question 23.
Towards the end of the story, Harvey exclaims “the experiment — has failed. We have begun too late”. Why does he say that?
Answer:
Harvey means to convey that the children were past their impressionable age. Although they were provided with ‘Peace Toys’ their inherent trait for violence made them to improvise the toys into characters of war-fare. These children were brought up in an environment of violence. They had imbibed violence. Hence it was difficult to change their attitude towards violence.

Question 24.
Eleanor believes that it is possible to curb a boy’s natural enthusiasm for violent games by giving them “peace toys” Did she succeed? Explain.
Answer:
Eleanor wishes to control both Eric and Bertie’s environment when it comes to the matter of them playing with toys. She feels as though they should not be playing with toy soldiers as it may have a negative influence on their lives. She wants to direct their minds towards more peaceful aspects. She believed that the ‘Peace toys’ would give a new impluse and direction to the children’s mind because they were at their most impressionable age.

No, Eleaner did not succed. The boys instead, find imaginative ways to use the ‘Peace toys’ in their war games.

Question 25.
In “The Toys of Peace,” Eleanor and her brother Harvey seem to represent the two sides of an argument that is still talked about and researched today, Nature vs. Nature. Elaborate.
Answer:
In the short story ‘The Toys of Peace’, Eleanor Bope, the mother oftwo young sons aged eleven and nine, is concerned about the toys her sons are playing with. So she asks her brother, Harvey, to get some civilian toys, exhibited by the National Peace Council, that Easter. Eleanor hoped that playing with civilian toys would curb the boy’s natural enthusiasm for violent games. She wants to direct their minds towards more peaceful aspects. Shebelieved that the ‘Peace Toys’ would give a new inpulse and direction to the children’s mind because they were at their most impressionable age.

Although, Harvey had his own doubts about the experiment he found it intresting and agreed with its intentions.

However, Harvey warned Eleanor to take the aspect of primitive instinct and hereditary tendencies into consideration as one of the boys great – uncle fought in the most intolerent fashion in the battle of Inkerman between Russia and Ukraine. Even one the great – grandfather indiscriminately destroyed Whig establishments in England in a very violent manner. The children had a violent past. They might have inherited the violent genetic traits from the fore – fathers.

Here Eleanor presents an argument that nurturing children in peaceful environment will have special bearing on civilian life in its more peaceful aspects. She argues that if the boys are given an explanation of the civilian toys they will get interested in the new idea and start playing peaceful games. She believes that the environment, life experienes and their upbringing will influence the children’s mind if they are nurtured in those aspects at their most impressionable age.

Harvey tends to agree with her that it would at least be good for children to not play violent games. He however points out that by nature the children had genetically inherited violent traits because their fore fathers had also shown violent traits.

When Harvey sees that the children had intelligently improvised the civilian toys into soldiers and were paying violent historical war – games he felt defeated. He believes that their experiment had failed. He even wonders whether it would be possible to teach history without making any mention of war and violence and that seemed impossible to him because there would be huge gaps in history if wars were left out. Moreover historically and naturally humans are violent.

Question 26.
Our environment and life experiences are responsible for our behavior. Comment.
Answer:
Since time immemorial it has been argued whether nature is the governing force behind our behaviour or is it nurture (upbringing) In-the short story ‘The Toys ofPeace’ Eleanor Bope, the mother of two little children, Eric, who is eleven years old and Bertie, who is nine and half years old wishes to control both their environment when it comes to the matter of them playing with toy soldiers as it may have a negative influence on the lives ofboth boys. She believes that ‘Peace Toys ’ are more productive for children. She compels her brother Harvey to buy ‘Civilian Toys’ present them to the boys, that Easter. She wished to control the environment in which they are nurtured believing that if they are brought up in a congenial environment they will develop good behaviour.

When the boys are presented the ‘Peaceful Toys’ they are disappointed and they cannot understand how they have to play with them, they decide that they would rather study history than play with those grotesque toys. Their uncle, Harvey then leaves them to study. After a short time he returns to see what they are doing. The children had intelligently improvised the “Peace toys” into characters of war and were playing war games.

These children were nurtured in an environment of violence. They are taught about wars in their history classes. Hence they were more interested in violent war-games rather than gardens and roses. They even anticipated to play the mock election game that their uncle suggested in a violent way, because they have seen how our leaders and people behaved during election campaigns.

Hence it can be said that our enviomment and life experiences are responsible for our behaviour.

Question 26.
In Saki’s story, Eleanor believes if children are given “peace toys” they will learn to prefer them to toy soliders and guns. Do you agree with this view? Elaborate.
Answer:
In the short story ‘The Toys of Peace’, Eleaner Bope, the mother oftwo young sons aged eleven and nine, is concerned about the toys her sons are playing with. So she asks her brother, Harvey, to get some civilian toys, exhibited by the National Peace council, that Easter. Eleanor hoped that playing with civilian toys would curb the boy’s natural enthusiasm for violent games. Towards more peaceful aspects she believed that the ‘Peace toys’ would give a new impulse and direction to the children’s mind because they were at their most impressionable age.

Although, Harvey had his own doubts about the experiment he found it interesting and agreed with its intentions.

However, Harvey warned Eleanor to take the aspect of primitive instinct and hereditary tendencies into consideration as one of the boys great – uncle fought in the most intolerent fashion in the battle of Inkerman between Russia and Ukraine. Even one the great – grandfather indiscriminately destroyed Whig establishments in England in a very violent manner. The children had a violent past. They might have inherited the violent genetic traits from the forefathers.

Here Eleanor presents an argument that nurturing children in peaceful environment will have special bearing on civilian life in its more peaceful aspects. She argues that if the boys are given an explanation of the civilian toys they will get interested in the new idea and start playing peaceful games. She believes that the environment, life experiences and their upbringing will influence the children’s mind if they are nurtured in those aspects at their most impressionable age.

Harvey tends to agree with her that it would at least be good for children to not play violent games. He however points out that by nature the children had genetically inherited violent traits because their fore fathers had also shown violent traits.

When Harvey sees that the children had intelligently improvised the civilian toys into soldiers and were paying violent historical war – games he felt defeated. He believes that their experiment had failed. He even wonders whether it would be possible to teach history without making any mention of war and violence and that second impossible to him because there would be huge gaps in history if wars were left out. Moreover historically and naturally humans are violent.

Question 27.
Do you agree with the expression “boys will be boys”? Discuss.
Answer:
Yes, I agree with the expression ‘boys will be boys’. In ‘The Toys of Peace” by H.H Munro we have the theme of control, childhood, freedom, fear, disappointment and independence Eleanor Bope, the mother of two little children Eric and Bertie, wishes to control their environment when it comes to the matter of them playing with toys. She feels as though they should not be playing with soldiers as it may have a negative influence on the lives ofboth boys.

If anything Eleanor is not allowing Eric or Bertie to be children and in many ways she is attempting to take away the freedom that is usually associated with childhood. However this is not how Eleanor (or Harvey) see things. They believe that non-military toys are more productive to children. For them historical figures should be played with but not necessarily those who have fought in wars. Hence Harvey buys so many toys that symbolize a different aspect of history.

It is also possible that Eleanor is afraid of how the boys will develop should they continue to confine their playtime to toys with a military background. Eleanor is being overprotective of both Eric and Bertie. They are still young and there remains a lot of time for them to develop other interests. It is also normal for a young boy to play with soldiers and it does not necessarily mean that by doing so there will be a negative influence on a child’s life. Eleanor’s fears appear to be driven by the fact that both Eric and Bertie are still innocent and may not really be conscious of how detrimental and devastating real war may be. Though playing with their toys is a game for both boys Eleanor has apprehensions about where it may lead to. Apprehensions which in all likelihood are misguided. Again both boys are still young and have plenty of time to change their interests.

They are also being influenced by the history lessons taught in their school as history is replete with wars. With conflict comes a victor and a loser. Every child wishes to be on the winning side and the toys that Harvey has bought simply do not provide Eric or Bertie with the same sense of victory. In reality Harvey’s toys though historically important are not as exciting to Eric or Bertie. Something which is understandable. It is also noticeable that the boys are creative when it comes to Harvey’s toys. They use the toys to create a battle scene. Much to the disappointment of Harvey. However Harvey appears to be forgetting that both Eric and Bertie are boys. The ways of the world outside conflict does not really interest them. If anything both boys may find Harvey’s toys and his explanation on how to play with them boring. At least with their soldiers the boys know that there is a battle to be won or lost. What is important is that the boys enjoyplaying with their toys and that they are allowed to be boys.

The end of the story is also interesting as both Harvey and Eleanor appear to admit defeat when it comes to what type of toys the boys like to play with. Though Harvey considers that it may have been too late to change the boy’s mind this is not a certainty. In all likelihood as the boys grow up and mature they will discard their old toys and play with new toys and soon they will stop playing with toys altogether. There will be other things that will attract the boy’s attention as they grow up. Despite the good intentions of both Harvey and Eleanor the boys have not been persuaded to redefine how they play with their toys nor should they be.

They are still young and should be allowed the freedom that comes with childhood and decide for themselves what games they like to play. Rather than attempting to control Eric and Bertie’s activities Eleanor would serve herselfbetter to accept that both boys are just children. She may be disappointed but her disappointment won’t last. Just as Eric and Bertie playing with soldiers won’t last. Like a lot of young boys it is just a period that they are going through. It would be unhealthy to force the boys to change the games that they play as this would only led to the stifling of their independence.

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY

LETTER WRITING
Exercise

Question 1.
Write an enquiry to “Samarth Enterprises” asking the detail for installation of UPS in your office.

ENQUIRY LETTER

To,
SAMARTH ENTERPRISES                                                                                                                    Date:
____________________
____________________
From
MANAGING DIRECTOR
CAMBRIDGE PUBLISHING CO.PVT.LTD
Dear Sir / Madam
Sub : Letter of Enquiry for Installation of UPS in our Office Premises.
I am writing to inquire about the availability of UPS. I have seen the product details on your website and I am very interested in buying one. As we are thinking of adding more workstations, printers and other electronic equipments. I think it is adviseable to send one of your competent technical person to appraise and indicate the exact capacity of the UPS we need before taking a decision. I have confidence in your commitment to quality but I think it is better to have an experts opinion before we purchase the equipment. I need to take a decision in the coming few days so it is really very important if you send the technical person as soon as you receive this letter. Awaiting your reply.

Best Regards
Abhirama Swamy
MD, CPC

Question 2.
Write an enquiry to ‘Akshara Prints’ requesting them for details of printing your annual magazine. Provide details of the approximate number of pages, photos, cover page, the number of copies needed emphasizing on the need for supply in time.

 ENQUIRY LETTER

To
AKSHARA PRINTERS                                                                                                                                                    Date:
……………………………..
……………………………..
From
Principal
CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE
………………………….
…………………………..
Dear Sir/Madam
Sub: Letter of Enquiry for printing Annual College Magazine.
Your are invited to submit you most competitive prices for designing, composing, colour printing of our Annual College Magazine.
work : Composing, Desigining, Colour printing of College Magazine.

1. Quantity : 100 Copies
2. Paper, Text Pages : 130 GSM Art paper
3. Cover Pages : 280 GSM art board with online coating and UV
4. Book Size : A4 (Demy size)
5. Pages : 500 Pages (Approx)
6. Printing : All Pages and covers in 4 colours and photos.
7. Binding : Perfect binding with center sewing
8. C.D of Magazine – 2018 to be place inside each Magazine.

I look forward to an early reply as we intend to distribute the College Magazine on our college day celebrations on ___/ ____/ ____
With Best Regards
C.I.C.
Principal

QUOTATIONS

Exercise
Question 1.
Write a quotation on behalf of Goodwill Travels to Sarvodaya First Grade College of Management about the educational tours you conduct. Draw attention to the reasonable price, good facilities given and the educational value as well as security arrangements.
To,
Sarvodaya First Grade College
ofManagement                                                                                                                                                  Date:
____________________
____________________
From
Goodwill Travels
Dear Sir/Madam
Sub: Ouotion for Conducting Educational Tours
We, at Goodwill Travels, are extremely happy to introduce ourselves as a leading tour conductors in the state of Karnataka. Over the last 15 years, Goodwill travels has redefined, Educational tours and changed the way students explore and learn the vast world of the outdoors. It is a matter of pride to say that we have conducted more than 15,000 educational tours, over the years, to the best of our travel enthusiasts satisfaction:

We have over 400 guides with best experience in conducting educational tours for students. The team is dedicated in ensuring the students enjoy the best of their tours while they also learn vital lessons.

All our tours are designed to offer the students knowledge beyond the conventional class room in a safe environment throughout the trip.

Since cost is important, we at Goodwill Travels, with all our experience andknowldege keep the cost effective so that all students can afford our conducted tours.
We offer, Nature Tours, Adventure tours, Culture and Heritage Tours.

We hope to be your preffered Educational Tour conductors.
With Best Regards
ChiefManager
Goodwill Travels.

Question 2.
Send a voluntary quotation to Suvarna Institution, Tumkur, offering event management services for various programmes assuring of decent, refined and cultured expressions as also creative programmes.
To,                                                                                                                                                                      Date:
The Secretary
Suvarna Institutioa
Tumkur
From
Xerexes Even Event Management Service
…………………………….
Dear Sir/Madam
Sub : Quotation for Event Management Services. Xerexes Event Management services is a full service event management company based in Bangalore city. Out team of award winning professionals specializes in taking event from concept to production.

We have worked with some of the wold’s top brands and talents to create amazing experiences in locations both large and small. We have worked with Infosys, Wipro and also Bharat Electronics Ltd.

Most elite families and corporate firms have been our clients for years. We provide a compelling audio – visual experience that our clients do not forget for a long time.

Our creative team will work with you to conceptulize the event of your dreams through computer designing. Our musical presentation, entertainment are decent, refind and cultured expressions with a lot of creativity. Out team are competent enough to assist you in choosing themes for your events. We have a network of renowned caterers who ensure quality, tasty and competitively priced food and drinks. We have efficient transport, security and venue partners who ensure convinence and safely of our clients.

Every client will be assigned a didicated Events Manager for co-ordination and execution qfthe events. More over we are proud to inform you that we have state – of – art audiovisual equipments to create fantastic experience which is our primary aim. The Event Manager will be directly responsible for the events success and will provide on – site management and support on the day of your event.

Our pricing is very competitive and depends on the size and requirements of your events which can be negotiated with discussions between our team and your team.

We look forward to be of service to you

With Regards
Managing Director
Xerexes Event Management Services.

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