Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery About The Poet

One of the greatest political leaders and the constructor of modern India, Ambedkar was the pioneer in the study of caste and untouchability. He observed, studied, and assessed the different dimensions with which discrimination at social, political, economic, and educational levels existed. With his writings, he confronted the world which differentiated people and betrayed them. He relentlessly worked to bring order and reform which was similar and parallel to Gandhiji’s. Here Ambedkar says that slavery is better than untouchability.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary

Slavery is not a free social order. Is untouchability a free social order? The Hindus say it is the social order. Untouchability and slavery are not the same. Untouchability is the worst. Slavery is not obligatory but untouchability is. At least, the slave can get lucky and become free but an untouchable will remain untouchable for life. Untouchability is an indirect form of slavery and deprivation from freedom. So double betrayal in the society. An untouchable is a free citizen; he has all rights of a citizen but tie him with the label where he has not chance to realize the cruel deception. It is indirect but real.

To distinguish between the two – untouchability and Slavery, we need to test if education, virtue, happiness, culture and wealth are possible in slavery or untouchability? Judged many times, Slavery is a hundred times better than untouchability. Slaves at least get to learn skills in business or art or according to Mures, the slave gets a glimpse in to the initiation into a higher culture. Personal growth can be seen among slaves. But considering the slavery in Rome, we cannot call slavery better.

Some training, some initiation in to the culture was beneficial to the slave. The master invested some amount in training the slave. Slaves were trained in domestic help or in craftwork. With the existing staff, the rich had special pedagogues for domestic help. To work as domestic help, slaves many times were deprived to work at industries, arts and crafts and education as the family was trained well into which the children followed.

The master took an interest to train the slave only to gain better as loyalty was confirmed. Also, the skilled slave would sell for better price. Even if he was hired, he would earn more wage for the master. Spending on the training of slaves was a good investment for the master. The slave falls and bows down to the master and as a return, the master provides him food, clothes, and shelter. This is better. But sometimes, if the slave does not always find a job, unlike the freeman, it is the duty of the master to provide bread and shelter. If the master does not find job/work, the slave does not suffer. All masters do suffer from business booms and lows but this does not affect the slave.

This is the advantage for a slave over a free man but slavery is unfree social order. Slaves were master-owned properties and hence valuable. Out of this interest, Master took good care of the health and well-being of the slaves. Cato advised Romans not to have slaves on marshy or malarial land. Only freemen were employed as it was not the responsibility of the master to care for a freeman.

Untouchability does not have any of the advantages — food, clothes and shelters. These do not have an entry in to the higher arts of civilization and they are not let near cultured life. He must only sweep and nothing else. Untouchability carries no security to livelihood. No Hindu feeds, accommodates or shares clothing. Nobody cares for an untouchable’s health and the death of an untouchable is regarded as good riddance. A Hindu proverb says ‘ With a dead untouchable, the fear of pollution has vanished.’

Untouchable experiences all the disadvantages of a free social order. A free individual untouchable has responsibility and struggles to survive from inequality. The untouchables neither have the equal opportunity nor a square deal. Untouchability is positively cruel as compared to slavery. These will have to compete with slave and the rest for job/work. In this competition, with the scales always weighing against him by the reason of his social stigma, he is the last to be employed and first to be fired. Untouchables are owned for personal interests and purposes and can be disowned easily. Untouchables are more disadvantaged than slaves.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Glossary

obligatory                    : Required or binding by a law or rule
compulsion                 : The act of using force or pressure to make someone do something
emancipation              : to free someone from someone else’s control or power
deprivation                 : the state of not having something that people need
enslavement               : to make someone a slave
deception                   : an act or statement intended to make a person believe something that is not true
enduring                    : lasting, durable
apprenticeship          : a person who learns a job or skill by working for a fixed period of time
initiation                    : the process of being formally accepted as a member of a group or organisation
inherent                     : belonging to the basic nature of someone or something
pedagogue                : a teacher especially formal or pedantic
forfeit                         : something that is lost or given up as punishment or because of a rule or law
ebbs                           : the time when the tide flows out from the land
vicissitudes                 : the quality or state or being changeable/ mutability
prudent                     : having or showing careful good judgment
riddance                    : an act of ridding, deliverance relief
stigma                        : a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something

COMPREHENSION:

Question 1.
What is the difference between untouchability and slavery?
Answer:
Untouchability is obligatory and has no option in the so called free social order whereas, slavery has hope for liberation. Slaves have entry in to higher arts of civilization.

Question 2.
Why is untouchability the worst form of slavery?
Answer:
Untouchables are owned by the Hindus and if disowned, they become responsible for maintaining themselves without any skill or acceptance by others. There is no personal growth and remain fit only to sweep.

Question 3.
How does untouchability become unconscious and indirect?
Answer:
In a free society, untouchability is obligatory where it gets carried on for generations making untouchable a noticeable stratum of the society. With no entry to any kind of skill, untouchables indirectly suffer from loss of identity and no voice to go against the powerful.

Question 4.
What is cruel deception?
Answer:
In slavery, the master is responsible for the welfare of the slave but in case of untouchables, it is obligatory. An untouchable has no value, he cannot be bought or sold, he has no skill, he has no introduction in to culture or civilization. Though he belongs to the free order of the society, he is helpless and vulnerable.

Question 5.
Slavery and Untouchability is a
a. Free social order
b. Unfree social order
c. Democratic order
d. None of the above
Answer:
Slavery and untouchability both are not free social order but cruelly deceptive.

Question 6.
In slavery there is room for ……………………… and …………………………….
Answer:
In slavery, there is room for education and culture to be learnt.

Question 7.
Name some training received by the slaves.
Answer:
Slaves may receive training in domestic work, skilled craft, trade, literacy and arts.

Question 8.
Who was the king of the Roman Empire mentioned in the text?
Answer:
Cato the Elder, is the Roman emperor mentioned in the text.

Question 9.
What are the advantages of training a slave?
Answer:
The advantage of training a slave is that if sold, he will fetch a better price. If hired, he will bring more wages. Training the slave is an investment for the master.

Question 10.
Whose duty was it to look after the slave in life and body?
Answer:
It is the duty and responsibility of the master/owner to look after the slave in life and body by providing food, clothes and shelter.

Question 11.
Which rule has no applicability to the slave?
Answer:
If there is no work, then there is no food rule that does not apply to the slave. It is the duty and responsibility of the master to provide the slave with food, clothes and shelter when he cannot find work for his slave.

Question 12.
What advice did king Cato give to the Roman farmers?
Answer:
Cato advised Roman farmers not to appoint slaves on marshy and malarial land where slave is a valuable property and the responsibility of the owner. Any time the slave could fall prey to malaria and die. This would be a loss.

Question 13.
What is the only duty of an untouchable?
Answer:
The only duty of an untouchable is to sweep.

Question 14.
The greatest disadvantage of a free social order is ………………………
Answer:
the responsibility for survival in the struggle for ‘ existence.

Question 15.
“Untouchability has none of the advantages of an unfree social order such as slavery. It has all the disadvantages of a free social order.” Explain.
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. The author says that untouchability is more disadvantageous as it has no emancipation, though falls in the free order category in the society; no one takes responsibility to treat them with equality. The only job for then is the clean the mess made by others without voicing and keep sweeping. Untouchability is accepted unconsciously and indirectly. It has all the disadvantages of free social order.

Question 16.
What does Prof. Mures’s expression ‘an initiation into a higher culture’ mean with reference to slavery? Comment
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, , political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. Professor Muressays that slavery is advantageous over untouchability as in, slaves can take an apprenticeship in business or art. This is an entry or initiation into a higher culture where these slaves are skilled and are valuable.

Question 17.
Why did the master take interest in training the slave?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic, and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. The master who owned the slaves would readily get his slave trained as he will be better skilled and will fetch more money if sold or will bring more wages if hired. Though the master had to fend for the slave’s food, clothing and shelter whether a slave has work or not, the slave would be property for him.

Question 18.
What are the disadvantages of being untouchable in a free social order?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. Dr.Ambedkar compares and contrasts between slavery and untouchability in depth. Though in a free society, slavery is better over untouchability as untouchables have accepted it unconsciously and indirectly they are suppressed which goes on for generations. Untouchables are in all cases responsible for themselves without skill or identity. They are just unwanted and are left only to sweep.

Question 19.
How is untouchability not only worse than slavery but positively cruel as compared to slavery?
Answer:
Untouchability is worse than Slavery is the lesson written by Dr. B R Ambedkar, the pioneer intellectual in the study of caste and untouchability. He fought against caste discrimination at social, political, economic and educational levels. This text is on slavery and untouchability. In comparison, untouchability has greatest disadvantage of a free social order. Untouchables are not given any fair start, no equal opportunity and a square deal. He is a free individual who is responsibility and he has no owner to take care or disown! He will be responsible for his food, clothes and shelter without an awareness to any skill or another culture but for sweeping.

Question 20.
Discuss the factors which worked to the great advantage of the slave?
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. In a free society, slaves are not free. In a free society, are untouchables free? Debatable. Professor Mures assesses the plight of slaves and tells that they are ‘ advantaged as they have scope to be apprentices in business or art. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. The • more skilled a slave is that much beneficial it is for the master. The slave would fetch more money if he was sold or he would bring more wages if hired. Cato, from the Roman empires advised the farmers not to employ slaves as they cannot afford to lose them to malaria and go bad in farming. The master, the owners had the responsibility and duty of providing food, clothes and shelter to the slaves whether they worked or not in any particular phase.

Question 21.
“An Untouchable has no entry in the higher arts of civilization and no way open to a life of culture as that of slave.” Substantiate.
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and , untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. Whereas in untouchability, they are not eligible for training as it is caste based discrimination.

It is obligatory and indirect way in which untouchables are stuck to the only job of clearing the mess. Considering that they belong to the free order, they are responsible for their maintenance. They have no security to their livelihood. Hindus are not responsible for the feeding, housing and clothing. None is responsible for the health of an untouchable. On all these, the death of an untouchable is believed to purify the earth better. When this is the situation, there is no entry for an untouchable in the higher arts of civilization and no way is he open to a life of culture as that of a slave.

Question 22.
Why is it better to be a slave in an unfree social order than be untouchable in a free social order?
Answer:
Dr. B R Ambedkar is an intellectual political leader and an individual who studied the caste and untouchability in depth. He fought for the rights of the outcast and was a reformist. He worked parallel to Gandhi and in this text, he discusses about slavery and untouchability between the two, slavery seems better advantageous than untouchability. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. They have an initiation into a higher culture unlike the untouchables. Slaves enjoy personal growth which is inherent in slavery. Whereas in untouchability, they are not eligible for training as it is caste based discrimination.

It is obligatory and indirect way in which untouchables are stuck to the only job of clearing the mess. Considering that they belong to the free order, they are responsible for their maintenance. They have no security to their livelihood. Hindus are not responsible for the feeding, housing and clothing. None is responsible for the health of an untouchable. On all these, the death of an untouchable is believed to purify the earth better. When this is the situation, there is no entry for an untouchable in the higher arts of civilization and no way is he open to a life of culture as that of a slave. This is why it is better to be a slave in an unfree social order than being an untouchable in a free social order.

JOB SKILLS

READING JOB ADVERTISEMENTS

Communication plays a vital role in job skills. LSRW is the sequence of language learning. A good listener speaks well and a good reader writes well. Nowadays graduates are eager to work and gain experience before pursuing higher studies. The first job after college is a foray into building a career. Job determines performance of given task for payment. It may be unrelated to studies. Career involves learning skills, gaining experience and knowledge. It states a person’s work life, salary, profile and progress. A career may or may not need formal education or special training. Profession refers to education and specialized training. A profession ensures a promising career like Doctors, lawyers, engineers, Professors. This chapter helps to prepare the student to begin the job search.

AIM

  • To develop students’ reading skills and enable them to understand important information in job adverts.
  • To expand students’ vocabulary related to work

Task -1
What are students’ experiences of finding a job?
What channels did they use -Placement cell, agencies, job ads in the newspapers, shop windows, job center etc.

Criteria for evaluating a job offer

Research your prospective employer
Salary, benefits and perks – leave, stock, incentives, insurance, profit sharing, transport, mobile, computer, additional perks like club membership, medical reimbursement, training programs
Savings and expenses- relocation, travel,
Career path- think carefully about long-term career prospects over salary and benefits.
Evaluate your job -objectively assess whether to consider the offer, negotiate further, or reject the offer
Check the company’s vision, values and principles

Task – 2

Test student’s knowledge of job profile:
For example, Where does a concierge work? Do you think it is a good job?
What is the job description of an accountant?
What does a business analyst do?

  • prepare, rewrite & edit material for publication in books, websites, and newspapers.
  • work on the shop floor and deal with staff and customers.
  • work in a bank. I collect customer’s grievances.
  • work in a hotel. I make room reservations.
  • receive payments and record information about cash transactions.

Task -3

Presenting new vocabulary
Share jargon about work and ask the students.
Some commonly used job listing usage: Collaborative cooperative, Creative/innovative – original, Deadline time, all the time, Entrepreneurial -pioneering, Go-getter initiative, Team player -relationship builder, Synergize cooperate,

Task -4

Show newspaper advert and ask what jobs are advertised.

Untouchability Is Worse Than Slavery Summary Notes chapter 2 img 1

English Summary

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